Christian grunge band from Kentucky. The single Epidermis Girl from their debut album Space was awarded a Dove Award for Modern/Alternative Rock Song of the Year in 1996. Disbanded in 2004.


Bleach is an extremely effective cleaning and disinfecting agent. Although you can buy it very cheaply at the store (around $1/gallon), if you are really frugal (or just interested in chemistry) it can be made quite easily. Make sure you perform this experiment outside or in a well-ventilated room with no smoking, because flammable hydrogen gas is evolved.


  • Cooking pot (should be as large as possible)
  • Large bucket
  • Water
  • Salt
  • Two iron nails
  • Computer power supply or automotive battery charger.
  • Stove
  • Coffee filters
  • Ice
  • Postal Scale for Weighing Powder
  • Wire
  • The first step is to get the pot and fill it with water. Then get some salt, and add it to the water until the water can hold no more. Then connect a nail, using wire, to a terminal of the battery charger or power supply. Do the same for the other nail and terminal. If you are using a computer power supply, remember that the connector with a colored wire is one terminal and the connector directly next to it (usually it has a black wire) is another. Even though there are four connectors, you will only be using those two. Drop the connected nails into the pot with salt water. Turn on the battery charger or power supply. You should soon see tiny bubbles in the bucket. If you don't, something is wrong. Try to stay away from the bucket; it can evolve flammable and poisonous gas. The temperature of the water should never exceed 90 deg. F. Make sure to put some ice around the bucket to cool the water.

    Leave the bucket alone for a day, then turn off the power supply, and the nails. Put the pot on the stove at full power and heat the pot. After a considerable amount of the water has boiled, you should start seeing a powder accumulate at the bottom of the pot. When it appears that no more powder is accumlating, turn off the stove. Wait for the water to cool down, then pour everything into the other bucket, making sure that it is through the coffee filter. The filter will catch the powder, and let the "depleted" salt water flow through into the bucket. If the filter gets full, empty it out in a separate container (not the pot), and continue pouring. When you are finished, pour the water in the bucket back into the pot. To make the bleach, put tap water in the bucket you just emptied, and add the powder to it, making sure that the ratio is 200 grams of powder for every gallon of tap water.

    The water in the pot still has some salt in it; therefore it can be used toward the salt requirement for the next batch.

    Bleach is also the name of a recent anime that has come out. Bleach first started out as a manga before Noriyuki Abe decided to direct it and form it into an anime.

    A 15 year old high school boy named Ichigo Kurosaki has always been able to see ghosts, but this ability doesn't change his life nearly as much as his encounter with Rukia Kuchiki, a Soul Reaper and member of the Soul Society. While fighting a Hollow, an evil spirit that preys on humans, the Soul Reaper attempts to lend Ichigo some of her powers so that he can save his family, but Ichigo absorbs every last drop of her energy. Now a full-fledged Soul Reaper himself, Ichigo quickly learns that the world he inhabits is one full of dangerous spirits. It is now Ichigo's job to protect the innocent from Hollows and help the spirits themselves find peace, until Rukia can gain back her powers completely.

    It is definitely an interesting anime. It is still in the works on being subbed and released here, but I have seen up to episode 10 and so far it is turning out to be really great. The character development of Ichigo is great. Seeing him transform from this 15 year old high school kid into a Soul Reaper and battle with various different hollows shows his great depth as a character. Each battle leaves its mark on him, and makes him stronger and more ready to face the upcoming challenges.

    I recommend this anime to any interested in one that combines comedy with fighting and great character development.

    / \
    Cl Na

    Commonly the most dangerous chemical found in a household, bleach is an inorganic aqueous solution of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Bleach is a clear to yellowish liquid with a distinct chlorine like odor. Often mistakenly referred to as "chlorine bleach" because of its strong smell, bleach does not release a considerable amount of chlorine gas during its normal mode of action. Bleaches often include sodium hydroxide to maintain a pH-dependent equilibrium between the hypochlorite and chlorine the solution contains. Household bleach normally has a very alkali pH of around 12.5, and it is highly corrosive. Different solution strengths are marketed for different uses. High strength bleach is usually a 10% sodium hypochlorite solution, and some industrial bleaches may be up to 50%. Pool chlorine is usually 12%.

    Household bleach is an unstable solution. Chlorine evaporates from it at a rate of 0.75 gram active per day. When heated to temperature above 40C, or placed in direct sunlight, bleach disintegrates into its component chemicals. It is vigorously reactive with many chemicals, is a strong oxidator and reacts with flammable compounds and reductors.

    Given these facts, why would any one want to have bleach around?

    The key is disinfection. Every day, millions of households throughout the world rely on sodium hypochlorite bleach for their disinfection, deodorizing and cleaning needs. Bleach has long been recognized as having outstanding disinfective properties. The Institute Pasteur lists it as the most effective disinfectant against all known pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses. Its low cost and ready availability makes it an invaluable weapon for the maintenance of human health and proper preventative hygiene, throughout the world. It is also used in the removal of mold and mildew. NASA relied on bleach during the Apollo program to assure destruction of any potentially harmful organisms introduced from space by returning spacecraft. It has the advantage that microorganisms cannot build up any resistance to it. It can be produced, stored and transported, and used easily and safely. Dosage calculation is simple. Sodium hypochlorite bleach is as chemically effective as chlorine gas for disinfection and it leaves residual disinfectant products when used. In Canada, "Javex" brand bleach has been sold continuously since 1935. It definitely has a commercial future.

    How does bleach disinfection work?

    By adding hypochlorite to water, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is formed:

    NaOCl + H2O = HOCl + NaOH-

    Hypochlorous acid is divided into hydrochloric acid (HCl) and oxygen (O). The oxygen atom is a very strong oxidator.

    What else is it good for?

    Bleach is also used as a whitener, stain remover and sanitizer for laundry. When used as a supplement to laundry detergent, It is highly effective at removing a wide range of tough stains e.g. blood, body soil, coffee, grass, mustard, and red wine. Conversely, one of the hazards of laundry bleach use is the tendency for it to blanch bright colors and weaken fibers. If directly dripped on fabrics, it can cause spotting or even holes. Bleach is more commonly used when washing white clothing as a brightening agent.

    Not happy with the title of "World's Most popular Germ-Killer", bleach is also used in great quantities by industries worldwide. An enormous commercial market for industrial bleach exists, where it used for waste water treatment, drinking water disinfection and textile and paper manufacturing. It is used to treat sewage and industrial wastes to reduce odors and increase digesting efficiency. Hypochlorite bleach neutralizes sulphur hydrogen gas (SH) and ammonia (NH3). It detoxifies cyanide baths in metal finishing industries and treats cyanide effluents created by gold mining. Bleach is also used to recover precious metals from manufacturing solutions. Air scrubbing systems use bleach to destroy pathogens and neutralize gases. Without bleach, much of the food processing done in North America would not be possible. It is used to clean dairy equipment and food processing equipment, in fruit, vegetable, mushroom, hog, beef, poultry, fish and maple syrup processing. One of the first uses for commercial uses bleach was its use as a cotton whitener. It remains one of the most important chemicals used in textile manufacturing. Bleach is also used to whiten paper, soap, straw, wood and many other organic products.

    The common smell of swimming pools is created by bleach. It is used in swimming pool water disinfection, both as a daily regimen and as a shock treatment. An interesting tidbit is that if a pool smells of chlorine, it probably isn't very clean. When bleach reacts with ureum (a mixture of urine and sweat), hypochlorous acid and ureum react to form chloramines. These chloramines irritate mucous membranes and cause the so-called 'chlorine smell'.

    Who came up with this wonderful stuff?

    French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet, while working in the town of Javel on the outskirts of Paris, discovered sodium hypochlorite in 1787. Berthollet focused much of his work on the use of dyes, and was primarily interested in bleaches when used to whiten textiles. His discovery was quickly put to commercial use. The Javel Company introduced bleach to France, naming the product 'eau de Javel'. It was so popular that bleach is still known by that colorful name in France today. Another enterprising French scientist, Louis Pasteur, discovered the potent effectiveness of bleach when used against disease-causing bacteria. After Pasteur detailed the unsurpassed disinfection spectrum of bleach, its use as a disinfectant skyrocketed.

    How is bleach made?

    Sodium hypochlorite bleach is usually created in one of these two ways:
    The cheapest and safest was is by creating a concentrated brine solution by dissolving salt (sodium chloride) in softened water (H20). By running electricity through this solution, sodium hypochlorite forms in water. This solution contains 150 g active chlorine (Cl2) per liter. During the electrolyzing reaction, explosive hydrogen gas is also formed. This is the safest way? Actually, yes.

    The far more dangerous way to make bleach, which was also the method used by Berthollet, is by adding chlorine gas (Cl2) to caustic soda (NaOH). When this is done, sodium hypochlorite, water (H2O) and salt (NaCl) are produced according to the following reaction:

    Cl2 + 2NaOH + = NaOCl + NaCl + H2O

    This solution is also known as "Eau de Labarraque", and "Eau de Javel".

    What are the danger of misusing bleach?

    Bleach is made up of sodium, oxygen and chlorine, some of the most reactive of all chemicals. When bleach reacts with another substance, or is broken down in any way, these chemicals are released in ways that are rarely beneficial to biology.

    The most important thing to remember about bleach around the house are other cleaning substances that it reacts with dangerously. Ammonium, found in some cleaning products, mixed with sodium hypochlorite evolves nitrogen trichloride. Nitrogen trichloride smells like chlorine and is nearly as deadly. Deadly chlorine gas is created when bleach and hydrochloric acid are mixed, but few people use acid around the house for cleaning. As a strong base, bleach should not be mixed with a strong acid. That sort of thing is basic chemistry, what with the hydrogen ions being passed around in an energetic manner.

    Bleach decomposes slowly when stored properly, but decomposition is speeded up by temperatures above 40 degrees C and light. While decomposing, bleach becomes chlorine gas, oxygen gas, and sodium chlorate.

    There are lots of other things you shouldn't mix bleach with. Nitrogen compounds (e.g., ammonia, urea, amines, isocyanurates) can form toxic, reactive chloramines and nitrogen gas. Methanol and bleach can form methyl hypochlorite, which is explosive. Metals, like copper, nickel and cobalt, speed up the decomposition of NaOCl, while others will rapidly corrode because of oxygen reactions. Assume the worst when using bleach, because it will react with almost anything.

    So, you messed up. How can bleach kill you?

    The previously mentioned nitrogen trichloride and chlorine gases cause burning in the throat and coughing. High levels of exposure can lead to swelling and obstruction of the airway. In serious cases noncardiogenic pulmonary edema can occur. Bleach will react with skin and eyes causing corrosive burns and tissue necrosis. In small amounts it is a skin irritant, and inhaled aerosols can inflame the lungs. It is very harmful when ingested, as it reacts with the acidic environment of the digestive tract. Extensive damage to the mouth, throat, eyes, lungs, esophagus, nose, and stomach are possible. Damage can continues to occur to the esophagus and stomach for several weeks after the alkali was swallowed, and death may occur as long as a month later. If bleach is swallowed, vomiting should not be induced. Give milk or water and seek emergency medical care immediately. If bleach is on the skin, wash with lots of water. Ingested bleach can cause a severe change in blood pH which can damage all internal organs, but it is rare. Deaths caused by the misuse of bleach are extremely rare.

    Sodium hypochlorite is a known mutagenic, but bleach is not a mutagen, carcinogen, teratogen or skin sensitizer. The IARC (the International Agency for Research on Cancer) has concluded that chlorinated drinking water is not a "classifiable" human carcinogen. Bleach decomposition creates tiny amounts of absorbable organic halides (AOX), which have potential negative health effects in humans. That being said, the majority of these AOXs are easily degradable, are primarily water soluble and not bio-accumulative. Highly chlorinated species, such as dioxins, are not formed.
    Bleach is the first studio album recorded by Nirvana (the late '80s-early '90s grunge band). It is the most fun of the three (Bleach-Nevermind-In Utero), with the most get-up-and-jump sound and the least sappy 'emotional' songs to get in the way of pure bestial rage and energy release.

    When I picked it up from a shelf in HMV (or was it Virgin Megastores? I forget. Anyway.) I noticed that somebody had very helpfully labelled the album for me- there was a large sticker on the front saying 'THIS IS NIRVANA'S FIRST ALBUM'. That made me laugh for a while.

    The album was originally released in 1989 on 12" vinyl by Subpop, Waterfront records (Australia) and Tupelo records (UK), and on cassette and CD by Subpop and Tupelo.It was re-released in 1991 on 12", cassette and CD by Geffen in the UK, and on cassette by Subpop. It was then re-released again in 1992 on 12" by Waterfront and on CD in Japan by Geffen. Major label success.

    The original 1989 tracklist was Blew /Floyd The Barber /About A Girl /School /Love Buzz /Paper Cuts /Negative Creep /Scoff /Swap Meet /Mr. Mustache /Sifting. The UK release replaced Love Buzz with Big Cheese. The 1991 re-release included both songs, keeping Love Buzz in its original position and placing Big Cheese at the end. Later in 1992 a final song was added, Downer.

    The songs (in the order you'd find them if you picked the CD up today):

    Blew: This song kind of encapsulates the sound of the entire album in a short time. When the bass intro starts up you immediately know that 50 minutes of unadulterated grunge follow. The vocals in the first verse are very difficult to make out. For a while I didn't even realise the vocals had started up, they're so indistinct. Okay, I know it's near impossible to make out what Kurt screams at us anyway, but I think in the first verse of this he uses a talkbox or something. Sends his voice thru his guitar.

    Floyd The Barber: Kurt's adventures in a barbershop. At the top of my homenode is the lyric to this song, it's hilarious. Whenever I go to get my hair cut or my beard trimmed (I usually do it myself but sometimes I'd rather have it professionally done) this song is always playing in my head. It's so great. Clearly Kurt really liked having his chin nice and fuzzy. There are no real underlying messages in this song. It's simple, a hard and fast song about a barber having his barbery way with his customer. says that it's actually about 'the rot of subsurface paranoia and psychosis behind the all-American facade of small-town USA' but I disagree. I think it's just Kurt's adventures in getting raped in a barbershop.

    About A Girl: It's simply about a girl. A very specific girl, Kurt's ex-girlfriend, Tracy Marander. I heard that this song was the reason they broke up. And yes, the plural of anecdote IS data (just kidding. I'll try to find out a little more about it.)

    School: This song is three lines repeated over and over but the repetition makes it great- 1) (the verse) Won't you believe it, it's just my luck; 2) (the chorus) No recess; 3) (the bridge) You're in highschool again. That's it, but it sounds great. It follows the formula of most Nirvana songs, verse, chorus, verse, chorus, bridge, chorus.

    Love Buzz: Released in 1988 by Subpop as Nirvana's first ever single. It's actually a Shocking Blue cover. When listening to it, it's hard not to imagine Kurt and Kris (or Krist or whatever he's calling himself nowadays) as Arabs, with hot Arabian dancing girls all around them. It's surprisingly a very sexy song.

    Paper Cuts: A first-person narrative from the point of view (wow, how smart do I sound) of a person in a cage. It's lyric is one of my favourite Nirvana lyrics. As much as Kurt tried to communicate ideas more thru pure sound, musical energy, than thru words, when he sat down and thought about what he wanted to say, what came out was like having liquid gold fill up all the spaces in your brain. Or something. I'm not the most poetic of people, but you understand me. Basically it's about rejection/neglect by your parents. The cage idea is about how your parents neglecting you feels- like you're in a cage, and you're fed at certain times but otherwise you're trapped in this melancholy box alone with-- again, not the most poetic of people but you get me. The line 'the older ones come with lights/and take my family away' hints at the parental neglect idea. Also Kurt knew a family where the parents would punish the kids by locking them in their room. This song may also be a reference to them. The last few lines before the repetition of 'Nirvana' are near impossible to make out because by this point in the song Kurt has decided, okay, I'm not gonna bother trying to make it sound clear and distinct any more. Make of this screaming what you will. But in Kurt's Journals, (and I know I'm a bad person for reading them, and I'm sorry) the original lyric is written up. The original lyric differs from what Kurt decided he'd finally record for the song only with the part after 'they cock and twitch and masturbate' were he screams 'I said so' three times, in the Journals it says 'a reason a reason a reason try again' but what was recorded was 'nirvana--- &c.' Yea. Anyway, the final screamed part goes 'to take you, with me to, your eyes are blue' then 'nirvana' till the end.

    Negative Creep: Hard and fast and impossible not to get up and jump and run around breaking things and punching walls. It sounds like it's about Kurt ('this is getting to be- drone' 'I'm a negative creep and I'm stoned') but it may just be about a generic mental model of an antisocial, nerdy teenager. It also has a hilarious chorus- 'daddy's little girl is a girl no more' although thinking about it, it sounds a little, wrong.

    Scoff: From Kurt's point of view, bitching about the people who look down upon him, and scoff at him. But he doesn't care. They don't know him like he knows himself, and so he values his own opinion about himself more than everybody else's. The verse is 'In my eyes, I'm not lazy/In my face, It's not over/In your room, I'm not older/In your eyes, I'm not worth it' then 'gimme back my alcohol' several times. Then something I can't make out. And then the whole thing repeats. It's simple and pretty great.

    Swap Meet: About the way the sexes differ, and how attractive people find these differences. The chorus is 'Keeps his cigarettes close to his heart/Keeps her photographs close to her heart/Keeps the bitterness close to the heart'- it's a bit cynical and a bit sarcastic.

    Mr. Moustache: 'Mr. Moustache' is Kurt's name for all the 'Jew, nigger, spic and faggot hatin', 100% pure beef, all-American males', the big macho conservative sexist racist rapist white males, with their hair cut short and their mustaches trimmed weekly. The man who got Kurt onto Christianity, before he developed a kind of loathing for religion, had a mustache. He didn't fit into this category, however. The best thing about this song is, it's satirical!

    Sifting: The lyric of this song doesn't seem to make much sense. There's a refrain- 'wouldn't it be fun?'- but i don't see the relevance. However, there is reference to teachers and preachers, and there's also the line 'search, for a church'. The chorus goes 'don't have nothing for you' so the song would appear to be anti-authoritarian.

    Big Cheese: If other songs don't have clear meanings, this one's clear as well-polished glass. Again, I'm not--- yea, you get the idea. But this song has a pretty obvious meaning behind it. About office workers who suck ass to get to high positions within the office.

    Downer: A political song. Thus far we've had a well-thought lyric (the one for this song's pretty great, too), a satirical song and now, we have a political song. How great is this album? It's about people being led to believe by their governments that war is a necessary evil, it's needed to defend our freedoms &c. Kurt says, bullshit. 'Hand out lobotomies to save little families, surrealistic fantasy bland boring plain'. Also the vocals on this song aren't just Kurt's. He felt his voice wasn't nearly deep enough for the deeper parts of the song so he asked somebody (and I will find out who) to re-record the deeper verses for him.

    sources- of course, something that never fails me, the top of my head.

    Bleach (the anime)

    Spoilers scattered throughout, but no big plot points discussed past the first episode.
    (if you want to keep from spoiling anything, which is how I like to do it, quick summary: Watch it. Watch it now.)

    Ichigo Kurosaki is a fifteen-year-old Japanese high school student who was picked on as a child for his bright orange hair. It made him tough; working in the town's family-run medical clinic, particularly after the death of his mother in front of him when Ichigo was very young, certainly didn't help. (ouch)

    All that's well and good, but here's the thing: Ichigo can see ghosts. So (to a lesser extent) can his two sisters. Their ham of a father can't, but that would make the whole thing even more complicated.

    Okay, so Ichigo's in the center of town when on one particularly ghosty day, he runs into a ghost being attacked by a hideous masked monster that nobody but him can see. Only the intervention of a young woman in a black robe with a bigass sword keeps him from being, apparently, eaten by the thing.

    The young woman's name, if you can call three-hundred years-old young, is Rukia Kuchiki, and she's a Soul Reaper - Ichigo discovers that when, later that night, Rukia walks through his wall and is mildly surprised when he tackles her - she's actually more surprised that he can see her at all.

    Soul Reapers, she says, are kind of like the garbage men of the spiritual world. There are two kinds of souls who find themselves wandering the earth after their death, Wholes and Hollows. Wholes are souls who need to have a ritual performed on them to have them sent to the Soul Society, and Hollows are hideous and vaguely animal-like monsters who try to eat them. Soul reapers save the Wholes and destroy the Hollows.

    ...and then Rukia stabs Ichigo with her sword in a desperate attempt to transfer half of her spirit energy into his body. Ichicgo somehow absorbs all of it...and reappears in a robe like Rukia's with a sword twice the size of his body and carves a Hollow in two to protect his sister. The bigger the sword, the bigger the spirit force of its wielder, and Rukia's never seen one that huge before. Ahem.

    Here's the thing: That's the first damn episode.

    Bleach is the densest and most thoroughly thought-out anime I've ever seen. The mythology is intricately conceived, from the powers of Ichigo and his friends to the characters themselves.

    Oh my god, the characters.There are dozens of them of varying types - Ichigo and his magical and non-magical classmates, Rukia and the Soul Reapers, denizens of the Soul Society, Ichigo's family, Ichigo's teachers, a wandering collection of spiritual fireworks experts, a spiritually-infused television personality (kinda like John Edward on amphetamines), the vendors at the local spiritual supply store, the little stuffed lion cum marketing accessory that Ichigo stores his soul in when he's not using it (see what I mean?) and even the monstrous Hollows all have distinct personalities and drives.

    The Soul Reapers in particular are well-conceived. The soul society is hierarchical in a militaristic sort of way, and every single one of them is immediately identifiable as a unique character, from the one who never opens his eyes to the one in the metal mask to the mad scientist, every one of them has a place within the story.

    And did I mention it's gorgeous? There's a toned-down FLCL vibe to the whole affair, and the show is stylized to the extreme in a way that's, surprisingly, not intrusive at all.

    Watch it, from the beginning if you can, in Japanese with English subtitles (unless you're lucky enough to be fluent in Japanese. I envy you.) - the English voice acting, while passable, doesn't hold a candle to the original cast.

    - - -

    Addenum, much later:

    There are problems with this anime not initially gleaned the first time through.

    No one dies. Ever. With a cast of characters as large as the show has and considering how epic some of the battles are (in some cases lasting over numerous episodes) everybody, even the bad guys, manage to limp away, heal themselves and come back for more. I understand why that would be the case but it takes a lot of the fulfillment out of the thing, knowing that the fights have no real consequences.

    Also, the pacing gets thrown for a loop after awhile - there are whole episodes devoted to training, to getting from one place to another or to lighthearted backstory, non of which is particularly welcome in the middle of a boss fight. It feels like the writers were killing time, which is a problem with any anime without a definitive arc but is particularly noticeable here. Last Exile and Haibane Renmei do it right - they have a story to tell and they do it before taking their bows and walking off stage, but Bleach goes on and on and on without a hint of character resolution. It isn't as bad as, say, Inuyasha, but it's close.

    It's still worth it, but be prepared for a long haul if you dive in.

    Bleach (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bleached (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Bleaching.] [OE. blakien, blechen, v. t. & v. i., AS. blacian, blcan, to grow pale; akin to Icel. bleikja, Sw. bleka, Dan. blege, D. bleeken, G. bleichen, AS. blac pale. See Bleak, a.]

    To make white, or whiter; to remove the color, or stains, from; to blanch; to whiten.

    The destruction of the coloring matters attached to the bodies to be bleached is effected either by the action of the air and light, of chlorine, or of sulphurous acid. Ure.

    Immortal liberty, whose look sublime Hath bleached the tyrant's cheek in every varying clime. Smollett.


    © Webster 1913.

    Bleach, v. i.

    To grow white or lose color; to whiten.


    © Webster 1913.

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