This list of the monarchs of Russia will not necessarily agree with all other sources' lists, because scholars disagree on when the loose confederation of eastern Slav princes under a Grand Prince really became a somewhat united Russia. (And because civil wars caused several rulers to have the throne for only a few months.) I'm starting with the earliest Grand Princes; some lists start almost 700 years later with Ivan the Terrible. Also, many of these monarchs' names can be rendered into English several different ways (the same ruler being called Fedor, Fyodor, Feodor and Theodore in different works, for example) -- I'm putting common alternate spellings in parentheses.

Kievan Rus

Mongol-Tatar Yoke, 1240-1480 Grand Princes of Moscow Time of Troubles The Romanovs Major sources:"Chronology of Russia" at;
"A History of Russia," 6th edition, by Nicholas Riasanovsky, 2000.
"Rulers of Russia" at
"Michael II of Russia"

Since using a positivist Communist philosophy to justify totalitarian rule is pretty much the same as justifying that rule by Divine Right, we might as well list the strongmen of the Soviet Union in this node. Although paramount power passed through various offices during the Soviet Union's existence, the top man was usually "General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union". On December 25, 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary and President, and the Soviet Union ceased to exist.  Power devolved onto the (somewhat) democratically elected presidents of the Russian Federation.

Thanks to for the patronymics and dates, and the knowledge about Bulganin (I had thought he had been General Secretary for a while).

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