"That whatsoever person or persons within this Province
and the Islands thereunto helonging shall from henceforth blaspheme God,
that is Curse him, or deny our Saviour Jesus Christ to bee the sonne of
God, or shall deny the holy Trinity the father sonne and holy Ghost, or
the Godhead of any of the said Three persons of the Trinity or the Unity
of the Godhead, or shall use or utter any reproachfull Speeches, words
or language concerning the said Holy Trinity, or any of the said three
persons thereof, shalbe punished with death and confiscation or forfeiture
of all his or her lands and goods to the Lord Proprietary and his heires."
-The Maryland Toleration Act
"He hath more wit than to be here!."
- Lady Anne Fairfax, speaking of her husband Charles I's nonattendance at his own trial
"I have delivered to my conscience; I pray God you do take
those courses that are best for the good of the kingdom and your own salvation."
- Charles I, on the scaffold.
Born in 1649:
Died in 1649:
Charles I, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, beheaded
January 30 on the order of the 59 regicides, led by Oliver Cromwell.
Royalist leader James Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton, beheaded March
English poet and author Richard Cranshaw.
Dutch classical scholar Gerhard John Vossius.
Polish composer Adam Jarzebski.
Italian geographer and illustrator Giulio Aleni, Jesuit missionary
Scottish poet William Drummond of Hawthornden.
John Winthrop, founder and governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Irish Royalist leader Owen Roe O'Neill.
Noel Chabanel, Charles Garnier, Gabriel Lalemant,
and Jean de Brebeuf, French Jesuit missionaries living among
2500 at Drogheda; an unknown number in Wexford and Waterford.
Great King Hwabaek Injo Honmun of Korea.
Events of 1649:
Cavalier poet Richard Lovelace publishes a collection of his poems
Nicholas Culpeper publishes an English translation of the College of
Francis Quarles comedy A Virgin Widow is published posthumously.
John Bunyan musters out of the army and gets married; his wife
introduces him to religious literature.
The English Civil War comes to its bloody conclusion.
(January) Lord Fairfax, nominally commander of the New Model Army, does not attend the trial of Charles I. After Lady Anne's fairfax's forcible removal after her famous outburst, the wraps up, and the court votes 68 to 67
to convict the King. His son Charles, in exile in France, sends
a signed blank sheet of paper to Parliament, indicating he will accept whatever
terms they dictate to save his father's life. To no avail; the father
is sentenced to death. 59 men sign a
death warant on January 29, and he is beheaded the next day, in the public
square outside Whitehall. Oliver Cromwell has Lord Fairfax detained.
(February) The Rump Parliament abolishes the House of Lords and the
monarchy; Oliver Cromwell proclaims England a "Commonwealth".
As the program of the Levellers is not being pursued, supporters of the
Levellers in the New Model Army mutiny. In response, Cromwell throws
the leaders of the movement into the Tower of London: John Lilburn,
William Walwyn, Thomas Price, Richard Overton, and others.
(April) A group of English peasants led by Gerard Winstanley and William
Everard form a communal farm on St. George's Hill in Surrey.
These "True Levellers" or "Diggers" are denounced in the manifesto the
Levellers publish from the Tower.
Cromwell orders the New Model Army to massacre the entire garrison of
Drogheda after they refuse to surrender. Many Irish towns surrender
after this, but Waterford and Wexford do not, and meet a similar fate.
(April) Maryland issues an Act of Toleration,
allowing religious freedom for all sects of Christianity (but no-one
Virignia declares its loyalty to the Crown; Charles II grants large areas
of land to his father's 'Cavalier' supporters; many flee to Virginia.
(September) Parliament imposes censorship of the press.
The Fronde of Parlement: The Prince de Conde, with troops freed up
from the Thirty Years' War, lays seige to Paris, which Cardinal Jules
Mazarin, Anne of Austria, and ten-year-old Louis XIV had to flee the
previous year. Eventually Parlement capitulates; making the Paix de Reuil.
Mazarin, Anne, and Louis return from Saint-Germain where they had been
Mazarin has Louis proclaim a protectorate over Maronite Christians in
Swedish Queen Christina
manipulates the Riksdag into accepting her cousin and former lover Charles Gustavus as her successor.
invites Rene Descartes to visit Sweden; he accepts.
- The Polish Sejm meets and elects Jan Casimir Wazy to succeed his brother Wladyslaw IV.
Cossack hetman Bogdan Zenobi Chmielnicki decides to make Ukraine independent
from Poland, laying seige to Zbarazh. King Jan II Casimir leads
an army to attempt relief before he is ready and Chmielnicki surprises
him. Jan manages to get the Tatar army to attack Chmielnicki and
escapes. Jan and Chmielnicki make a temporary settlement which will
not last long.
Russia adopts a legal code which:
removed freedom of movement from most commoners.
officially sanctioned serfdom, tying the peasants to the estates they
lived on, and making them the property of the landowners.
The Persians exploit Mughal military weakness and take
Kandahar from them.
The Hurons and Tionontatis finally succumb to the invasion from the
Iroqoius League. Most are enslaved, but some
escape their former homeland. The refugees flee to Mackinac Island
but the Iroquios are still pursuing them, and they will have to flee the
following year. The refugees will eventually settle in Ohio, calling
themselves "Wendat" or "Wyandot."
The Iroquois had borne the French emnity ever since the days of Champlain; so when the missionaries are captured in various
raids, they are killed on the spot or tortured to death. However,
a Huron later admits to killing Chabanal. The Roman Catholic Church considers
them martyrs. Jean de Brebeuf is now patron saint of Canada.
1648 - 1649 - 1650
How They Were Made - 17th Century