Here are some of the honorific suffixes that appear in Japanese. None of them are really analogous to any English terms, but I'll do my best to explain them.
-san: The standard. Vaguely like "Mr." or "Ms.", although it doesn't have any gender associated with it. Used for peers and acquaintances, but would be a bit formal for using with your friends. Used for people socially higher than you, and people you don't know well.
-chan: Female diminutive. You can use -chan with little kids, particularly little girls. Teenage girls can use it on each other, as can younger children in general.
-kun: Male diminutive. Teenage girls would use this for their male peers. People socially higher than a given male could use -kun, those lower than him would use -san. A teacher might call all his students, male or female, -kun.
-sama: Very honorable. -Sama is not used very much in standard conversation anymore, but it's often applied to pronouns (as in mina-sama, "everyone" dochira-sama, "who") when using "keigo", honorific language. -Sama is used for somebody much higher than you, but be careful - in modern Japan, -san is probably correct, if not -san, then sensei. -Sama may make whoever you're using it on feel uncomfortable.
-dono: Archaic honorable. Samurai used -dono, and you occasionally hear it in anime. I'm not clear on the rules for its usage, but it does denote respect. Update: Below, getzburg is right, eclip5e is wrong.
-sensei: Teacher. Used for any kind of instructor, whether it be elementry school teacher, music tutor, or martial arts master. Also used when referring to medical doctors, and professionals of certain vocations. Manga artists are called sensei, as in Fujishima-sensei.
It bears mentioning that these suffixes are not the only way of indicating respect in spoken Japanese; indeed, they're only a small part. More important is the level of politeness you decide to use in your grammar, particularly verb conjugations. There's more than one way to, for example, conjugate the past tense of the verb "to eat", but one way will be more polite than another.
I don't pretend to have honorific speech mastered; it's really hard. But perhaps this guide will be slightly useful all the same. As a last note, when referring to yourself by name, as in when you introduce yourself, you don't say "I'm Tanaka-san", you say "I'm Tanaka" - honorifics of any kind are never used when referring to yourself.
Point: Below, -brazil- is correct, but I'm sticking to my guns in saying that chan has basically female overtones while kun has basically male overtones, even though both terms can be used for both sexes.
A good rule of thumb for foreigners: When in doubt, use "san."