These Combining Diacritical Marks are intended for general use with any script. They are derived from a variety of sources, including IPA, ISO 5426 and ISO 6937.

In the Unicode character encoding, all nonspacing marks, including diacritics, are encoded after the base character. This is consistent with the logical order of other nonspacing marks in Semetic and Indic scripts. This convention is also in line with the way modern font technology handles the rendering of nonspacing glyphic forms, so that mapping from character memory representation to rendered glyphs is simplified.

IPA and a few languages such as Tagalog use diacritics that are applied to two baseform characters. These marks apply to the previous base character--just like all other combining nonspacing marks--but hang over the following letter as well. These double diacritics always bind more loosely than all other nonspacing marks except the iota subscript U+0345  ͅ  combining Greek ypogegrammeni, and thus sort near the end in the canonical representation. In rendering, the double diacritic will float above other diacritics (excluding surrounding diacritics).

Because nonspacing marks have such a wide variety of applications, the characters in this block may have multiple semantic values. For example
U+0308  ̈  combining diaeresis means diaeresis, umlaut and double derivative.

Unicode's Combining Diacritical Marks code block reserves the 112 code points from U+0300 to U+036F, of which all 112 are currently assigned.

Spacing Modifier Letters <-- Combining Diacritical Marks --> Greek and Coptic

Number of characters added in each version of the Unicode standard :
Unicode 1.1 : 72
Unicode 3.0 : 10
Unicode 3.2 : 14
Unicode 4.0 : 11
Unicode 4.1 : 5

All the characters in this code block are in general category Mark, Non-Spacing Mn

All the characters in this code block are in bidirectional category Non Spacing Mark NSM

The columns below should be interpreted as :

  1. The Unicode code for the character
  2. The character in question
  3. The Unicode name for the character
  4. The Unicode version when this character was added

If the characters below show up poorly, or not at all, see Unicode Support for possible solutions.


Combining Diacritical Marks

     Ordinary diacritics
* IPA (withdrawn in 1976): palatalization

U+0300   ̀   combining grave accent 1.1
sgml &grave;
aka Greek varia
ref U+0060   `   grave accent (Basic Latin)
ref U+02CB   ˋ   modifier letter grave accent (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0301   ́   combining acute accent 1.1
sgml &acute;
aka stress mark
aka Greek oxia, tonos
ref U+0027   '   apostrophe (Basic Latin)
ref U+00B4   ´   acute accent (Latin-1 Supplement)
ref U+02B9   ʹ   modifier letter prime (Spacing Modifier Letters)
ref U+02CA   ˊ   modifier letter acute accent (Spacing Modifier Letters)
ref U+0384   ΄   Greek tonos (Greek and Coptic)
U+0302   ̂   combining circumflex accent 1.1
aka hat
ref U+005E   ^   circumflex accent (Basic Latin)
ref U+02C6   ˆ   modifier letter circumflex accent (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0303   ̃   combining tilde 1.1
sgml &tilde;
* IPA: nasalization
* Vietnamese tone mark
ref U+007E   ~   tilde (Basic Latin)
ref U+02DC   ˜   small tilde (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0304   ̄   combining macron 1.1
sgml &macr;
aka long
* distinguish from the following
ref U+00AF   ¯   macron (Latin-1 Supplement)
ref U+02C9   ˉ   modifier letter macron (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0305   ̅   combining overline 1.1
sgml &Breve; &breve;
aka overscore, vinculum
* connects on left and right
ref U+00AF   ¯   macron (Latin-1 Supplement)
U+0306   ̆   combining breve 1.1
sgml &dot;
aka short
aka Greek vrachy
ref U+02D8   ˘   breve (Spacing Modifier Letters)
ref U+A67C   ꙼   combining Cyrillic kavyka (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+0307   ̇   combining dot above 1.1
aka derivative (newtonian notation)
ref U+02D9   ˙   dot above (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0308   ̈   combining diaeresis 1.1
sgml &Dot; &DoubleDot; &die;
aka double dot above, umlaut
aka Greek dialytika
aka double derivative
ref U+00A8   ¨   diaeresis (Latin-1 Supplement)
U+0309   ̉   combining hook above 1.1
aka hoi
* kerns left or right of circumflex over vowels
* Vietnamese tone mark
ref U+02C0   ˀ   modifier letter glottal stop (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+030A   ̊   combining ring above 1.1
sgml &ring;
ref U+00B0   °   degree sign (Latin-1 Supplement)
ref U+02DA   ˚   ring above (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+030B   ̋   combining double acute accent 1.1
sgml &dblac;
* Hungarian, Chuvash
ref U+0022   "   quotation mark (Basic Latin)
ref U+02BA   ʺ   modifier letter double prime (Spacing Modifier Letters)
ref U+02DD   ˝   double acute accent (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+030C   ̌   combining caron 1.1
sgml &Hacek; &caron;
aka hacek, v above
ref U+02C7   ˇ   caron (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+030D   ̍   combining vertical line above 1.1
* this is not the Greek tonos
* Marshallese
ref U+02C8   ˈ   modifier letter vertical line (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+030E   ̎   combining double vertical line above 1.1
* Marshallese
ref U+0022   "   quotation mark (Basic Latin)
U+030F   ̏   combining double grave accent 1.1
* Serbian and Croatian poetics
U+0310   ̐   combining candrabindu 1.1
ref U+0901   ँ   Devanagari sign candrabindu (Devanagari)
U+0311   ̑   combining inverted breve 1.1
sgml &DownBreve;
ref U+0487   ҇   combining Cyrillic pokrytie (Cyrillic)
U+0312   ̒   combining turned comma above 1.1
aka cedilla above
* Latvian (but not used in decomposition)
ref U+02BB   ʻ   modifier letter turned comma (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0313   ̓   combining comma above 1.1
aka Greek psili, smooth breathing mark
* Americanist: ejective or glottalization
ref U+02BC   ʼ   modifier letter apostrophe (Spacing Modifier Letters)
ref U+0486   ҆   combining Cyrillic psili pneumata (Cyrillic)
ref U+055A   ՚   Armenian apostrophe (Armenian)
U+0314   ̔   combining reversed comma above 1.1
aka Greek dasia, rough breathing mark
ref U+02BD   ʽ   modifier letter reversed comma (Spacing Modifier Letters)
ref U+0485   ҅   combining Cyrillic dasia pneumata (Cyrillic)
ref U+0559   ՙ   Armenian modifier letter left half ring (Armenian)
U+0315   ̕   combining comma above right 1.1
ref U+02BC   ʼ   modifier letter apostrophe (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0316   ̖   combining grave accent below 1.1
U+0317   ̗   combining acute accent below 1.1
U+0318   ̘   combining left tack below 1.1
U+0319   ̙   combining right tack below 1.1
U+031A   ̚   combining left angle above 1.1
* IPA: unreleased stop
U+031B   ̛   combining horn 1.1
* Vietnamese
U+031C   ̜   combining left half ring below 1.1
* IPA: open variety of vowel
ref U+02D5   ˕   modifier letter down tack (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+031D   ̝   combining up tack below 1.1
* IPA: vowel raising or closing
ref U+02D4   ˔   modifier letter up tack (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+031E   ̞   combining down tack below 1.1
* IPA: vowel lowering or opening
ref U+02D5   ˕   modifier letter down tack (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+031F   ̟   combining plus sign below 1.1
* IPA: advanced or fronted articulation
ref U+02D6   ˖   modifier letter plus sign (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0320   ̠   combining minus sign below 1.1
* IPA: retracted or backed articulation
* glyph may have small end-serifs
ref U+02D7   ˗   modifier letter minus sign (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0321   ̡   combining palatalized hook below 1.1
* IPA: palatalization
ref U+02B2   ʲ   modifier letter small j (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0322   ̢   combining retroflex hook below 1.1
* IPA: retroflexion
U+0323   ̣   combining dot below 1.1
aka nang
* IPA: closer variety of vowel
* Americanist and Indo-Europeanist: retraction or retroflexion
* Semiticist: velarization or pharyngealization
* Vietnamese tone mark
ref U+02D4   ˔   modifier letter up tack (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0324   ̤   combining diaeresis below 1.1
* IPA: breathy-voice or murmur
ref U+02B1   ʱ   modifier letter small h with hook (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0325   ̥   combining ring below 1.1
* IPA: voiceless
* vocalic (in Latin transliteration of Indic sonorants)
* Madurese
U+0326   ̦   combining comma below 1.1
* Romanian, Latvian, Livonian
U+0327   ̧   combining cedilla 1.1
sgml &Cedilla; &cedil;
* French, Turkish, Azerbaijani
ref U+00B8   ¸   cedilla (Latin-1 Supplement)
U+0328   ̨   combining ogonek 1.1
sgml &ogon;
aka nasal hook
* Americanist: nasalization
* Polish, Lithuanian
ref U+02DB   ˛   ogonek (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0329   ̩   combining vertical line below 1.1
* IPA: syllabic
* Yoruba
ref U+02CC   ˌ   modifier letter low vertical line (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+032A   ̪   combining bridge below 1.1
* IPA: dental
U+032B   ̫   combining inverted double arch below 1.1
* IPA: labialization
ref U+02B7   ʷ   modifier letter small w (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+032C   ̬   combining caron below 1.1
* IPA: voiced
U+032D   ̭   combining circumflex accent below 1.1
* Americanist: fronted articulation
U+032E   ̮   combining breve below 1.1
* Hittite transcription
U+032F   ̯   combining inverted breve below 1.1
* Americanist: fronted articulation (variant of 032D)
* Indo-Europeanist: semivowel
U+0330   ̰   combining tilde below 1.1
* IPA: creaky voice
U+0331   ̱   combining macron below 1.1
ref U+005F   _   low line (Basic Latin)
ref U+02CD   ˍ   modifier letter low macron (Spacing Modifier Letters)
U+0332   ̲   combining low line 1.1
sgml &UnderBar;
aka underline, underscore
* connects on left and right
ref U+005F   _   low line (Basic Latin)
U+0333   ̳   combining double low line 1.1
aka double underline, double underscore
* connects on left and right
ref U+0347   ͇   combining equals sign below (Combining Diacritical Marks)
ref U+2017   ‗   double low line (General Punctuation)

     Overstruck diacritics

U+0334   ̴   combining tilde overlay 1.1
* IPA: velarization or pharyngealization
U+0335   ̵   combining short stroke overlay 1.1
U+0336   ̶   combining long stroke overlay 1.1
U+0337   ̷   combining short solidus overlay 1.1
aka short slash overlay
U+0338   ̸   combining long solidus overlay 1.1
aka long slash overlay


U+0339   ̹   combining right half ring below 1.1
U+033A   ̺   combining inverted bridge below 1.1
U+033B   ̻   combining square below 1.1
U+033C   ̼   combining seagull below 1.1
U+033D   ̽   combining x above 1.1
U+033E   ̾   combining vertical tilde 1.1
aka yerik
* used for Cyrillic yerik, indicates an omitted jer
* this is not a palatalization mark
ref U+0484   ҄   combining Cyrillic palatalization (Cyrillic)
ref U+2E2F   ⸯ   vertical tilde (Supplemental Punctuation)
ref U+A67D   ꙽   combining Cyrillic payerok (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+033F   ̿   combining double overline 1.1

     Vietnamese tone marks (deprecated)
Vietnamese-specific accent placement should be handled by specialized rendering of 0300 and 0301.

U+0340   ̀   combining grave tone mark 1.1
U+0341   ́   combining acute tone mark 1.1

     Additions for Greek

U+0342   ͂   combining Greek perispomeni 1.1
U+0343   ̓   combining Greek koronis 1.1
U+0344   ̈́   combining Greek dialytika tonos 1.1
* use of this character is discouraged
U+0345   ͅ   combining Greek ypogegrammeni 1.1
aka Greek non-spacing iota below (1.0)
aka iota subscript
* note special casing issues
ref U+037A   ͺ   Greek ypogegrammeni (Greek and Coptic)
ref U+0399   Ι   Greek capital letter iota (Greek and Coptic)

     Additions for IPA

U+0346   ͆   combining bridge above 3.0
* IPA: dentolabial
ref U+20E9   ⃩   combining wide bridge above (Combining Diacritical Marks for Symbols)
U+0347   ͇   combining equals sign below 3.0
* IPA: alveolar
U+0348   ͈   combining double vertical line below 3.0
* IPA: strong articulation
U+0349   ͉   combining left angle below 3.0
* IPA: weak articulation
U+034A   ͊   combining not tilde above 3.0
* IPA: denasal

     IPA diacritics for disordered speech

U+034B   ͋   combining homothetic above 3.0
* IPA: nasal escape
U+034C   ͌   combining almost equal to above 3.0
* IPA: velopharyngeal friction
U+034D   ͍   combining left right arrow below 3.0
* IPA: labial spreading
U+034E   ͎   combining upwards arrow below 3.0
* IPA: whistled articulation

     Grapheme joiner

U+034F   ͏   combining grapheme joiner 3.2
* commonly abbreviated as CGJ
* has no visible glyph
* the name of this character is misleading; it does not actually join graphemes

     Additions for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet

U+0350   ͐   combining right arrowhead above 4.0
U+0351   ͑   combining left half ring above 4.0
U+0352   ͒   combining fermata 4.0
U+0353   ͓   combining x below 4.0
U+0354   ͔   combining left arrowhead below 4.0
U+0355   ͕   combining right arrowhead below 4.0
U+0356   ͖   combining right arrowhead and up arrowhead below 4.0
U+0357   ͗   combining right half ring above 4.0

     Miscellaneous additions

U+0358   ͘   combining dot above right 4.1
* Latin transliterations of the Southern Min dialects of Chinese
U+0359   ͙   combining asterisk below 4.1
ref U+204E   ⁎   low asterisk (General Punctuation)
U+035A   ͚   combining double ring below 4.1
* Kharoshthi transliteration
U+035B   ͛   combining zigzag above 4.1
* Latin abbreviation, Lithuanian phonetics and mediaevalist transcriptions

     Double diacritics

U+035C   ͜   combining double breve below 4.1
aka ligature tie below, papyrological hyphen
* a common glyph alternate connects the horizontal midpoints of the characters
ref U+035D   ͝   combining double breve (Combining Diacritical Marks)
ref U+0361   ͡   combining double inverted breve (Combining Diacritical Marks)
U+035D   ͝   combining double breve 4.0
U+035E   ͞   combining double macron 4.0
U+035F   ͟   combining double macron below 4.0
U+0360   ͠   combining double tilde 1.1
U+0361   ͡   combining double inverted breve 1.1
aka ligature tie
U+0362   ͢   combining double rightwards arrow below 3.0
* IPA: sliding articulation

     Medieval superscript letter diacritics
These are letter diacritics written directly above other letters. They appear primarily in medieval Germanic manuscripts, but saw some usage as late as the 19th century in some languages.

U+0363   ͣ   combining Latin small letter A 3.2
U+0364   ͤ   combining Latin small letter E 3.2
U+0365   ͥ   combining Latin small letter I 3.2
U+0366   ͦ   combining Latin small letter O 3.2
U+0367   ͧ   combining Latin small letter U 3.2
U+0368   ͨ   combining Latin small letter C 3.2
U+0369   ͩ   combining Latin small letter D 3.2
U+036A   ͪ   combining Latin small letter H 3.2
U+036B   ͫ   combining Latin small letter M 3.2
U+036C   ͬ   combining Latin small letter R 3.2
U+036D   ͭ   combining Latin small letter T 3.2
U+036E   ͮ   combining Latin small letter V 3.2
U+036F   ͯ   combining Latin small letter X 3.2
Some prose may have been lifted verbatim from,
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