The military ruler of Pakistan since a coup d'état on 12 October 1999. He deposed prime minister Nawaz Sharif and took up the position of "Chief Executive". On 20 June 2001 he removed President Mohammad Rafiq Tarar and assumed the presidency.

General Musharraf was born on 11 August 1943 in Delhi. As I write he is on a state visit to India and has revisited his old family home there, and met an aged retainer who remembered him. The family moved to Karachi on the creation of Pakistan; his father Syed Musharaff-ud-Din was a career diplomat, and they lived in Turkey between 1949 and 1956, so the president is fluent in Turkish.

He joined the military academy in 1961, saw action against India in 1965 and against secessionist Bangladesh in 1971. Major General 1991, Lieutenant General 1995, General and Chief of Army Staff 1998, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff 1999.

In this position he represented the armed forces in the turmoil of the Nawaz Sharif regime. An aircraft carrying him back from Sri Lanka was ordered not to land at Karachi, but as it had only a few minutes of fuel left this was taken as an attempt to kill him by the civilian government. Soldiers seized power and General Musharraf was provisionally installed. Because of the chaos of the Sharif and Benazir Bhutto governments before him, this seizure was not unwelcome in many quarters.

The official biography of him is at
but it is broken by non-existent Javascript animations, so you have to turn off JS before reading it.

Much can be said about him, and I could go on for pages. Here is a Pervez Musharraf time-line, published in Pakistani paper Jang:


August 1943: Born in Delhi, India

1964: Joins Pakistani army.

1998: Becomes army chief of staff.

October 1999: Seizes power in a bloodless military coup, overthrowing the prime minister, Nawaz Sharif. In response, the Commonwealth suspends Pakistan’s membership.

June 20 2001: Makes himself president, replacing Rafiq Tarar, while remaining head of the army. Tarar is forced out of office when the parliament that elected him is dissolved.

July 2001: Holds first meeting with the Indian prime minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, at Agra in India. No progress is made because of differences over the disputed territory of Kashmir.

September 2001: George W Bush courts Musharraf, asking him to join him in his “war on terror” and help defeat the Taliban in neighbouring Afghanistan. The US president promises Pakistan $1bn in aid.

April 2002: Wins a referendum giving him another five years in office. Observers criticise the referendum as blighted by irregularities.

May 2002: Pakistan test fires three medium-range surface-to-surface missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads. Musharraf insists his country would not be the one to initiate war.

August 2002: Consolidates his power still further, giving himself the right to dismiss an elected parliament.

October 2002: Pakistan’s first general election since Musharraf seized power in 1999 results in a hung parliament.

November 2002: Mir Zafarullah Jamali becomes the first civilian prime minister since 1999. He is a member of a Musharraf-supporting party.

November 2003: Pakistan’s National Assembly meets for the first time since 1999.

December 2003: Musharraf promises to step down as head of the army by January 2005.

May 2004: Pakistan is readmitted to the Commonwealth.

December 2004: Musharraf announces he will stay on as head of the army.

August 2005: Pakistan tests its first nuclear-capable cruise missile.

March 2007: Musharraf suspends the chief justice, Iftakar Mohammed Chaudhry, triggering a wave of anger across the country and the first joint protests held by the parties of exiled former prime ministers Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif.

October 2007: Signs a corruption amnesty, opening the way for Bhutto’s return and a possible power-sharing agreement. Within hours of Bhutto’s arrival back in the country, bombers attack a Bhutto rally in Karachi, killing more than 100 people.

November 2007: Declares a state of emergency, rounding up opposition leaders at gunpoint. In the same month, Musharraf quits as head of the army, becoming a civilian president.

December 15 2007: Lifts state of emergency and announces plans to go ahead with parliamentary elections scheduled for January 8.

December 27 2007: Benazir Bhutto is assassinated at an election rally in Rawalpindi.

January 2008: Elections postponed until February 18.

February 2008: The two main opposition parties gain a clear majority in the elections.

August 2008: The two main parties strike a deal to impeach Musharraf if parliament backs the move.

August 18 2008: Musharraf announces his resignation


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