Francois Charles Joseph Bonaparte was the son of Napoleon I and Marie Louise of Austria, born in 1811. He was King of Rome 1811-1832, King of Parma 1814-1818 and from 1818 on had to settle for the title Duke of Reichstadt. Although he never reigned as emperor of France, he was known to the bonapartists as Napoleon II.

His father had originally abdicated in favor of him but the French senate did not recognize him as emperor and instead put King Louis XVIII on the throne. When Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated for the second time, he again tried to proclaim his son emperor of France. This action was also refused and from 1815 on, Napoleon II lived pretty much as a prisoner of Austria. He died there i tubercolosis in 1832 at the age of 21.

In 1940 his remains were transfered from Vienna back to France as a gift from Adolf Hitler to be buried beside his father.

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