Born in 1811:
Died in 1811:
Events of 1811:
(December 16) A large earthquake (estimated magnitude 8.0)
rocks the entire Eastern United states. Centered in northeastern
Arkansas near New Madrid, Missouri. Aftershocks
topple chimneys in Cincinnati.
King George III's insanity makes him unable to fulfill his duties,
and his son is made Prince Regent over Great Britain.
General Ned Ludd and his Army of Redressers start sending threats to
manufacturers who are using machines to make products instead of apprenticed
laborers. Threats quickly turn into action: Luddites
start breaking into Nottingham factories and smashing the hated machines.
Luddism spreads throughout the Midlands; the Prince Regent offers rewards
for the capture of the vandals.
Jöns Berzelius introduces a system of identifying chemical elements by a one or two-letter abbreviation.
Amadeo Avogadro publishes a work on the relative proportions of "molecules"
(November 7) Shawnee spiritual leader "The Prophet" Tenskwatawa, acts
against his brother Tecumseh's instructions and attacks Indiana Governor
William Henry Harrison's troops at the Battle of Tippecanoe
while Tecumseh is out trying to organize a pan-Indian coalition.
A minor victory for Harrison, it destroys all hope of the coalition.
Mehmet Ali, the Ottoman viceroy in Egypt, invites the Mamluk Beys
to a ceremony at the Citadel of Bab El Azab. Once they are inside
the Citadel, Ali has the gates closed and his Albanian and Turkish troops
fire at the Mamelukes from the walls, all of the Mamlk Beys are killed.
The lesser Mamluks are then hunted down and killed.
Britain and France continue to fight the Peninsular War in Spain.
The Duke Of Wellington holds Lisbon while besieging French troops under
Marshal Massena starve.
(March 1) Massena pulls his army out of Portugal.
(March 11) The French capture the border fortress of Bajadoz from the
British. Wellington now needs to take both Bajadoz and Almeida further
to the north.
(March 11) Battle of Barosa near Cadiz. The Spanish army deserts
as the French attack. The British troops are forced to withdraw from
(May 3-5) Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro. Marshal Massena attacks
Wellington's army besieging Almeida but the British hold.
(May 6) The British army lays siege to Bajadoz.
(May 15) Battle of Albuera. Marshal Soult attacks the British
besieging Bajadoz. Another "draw" that the French get the worst of;
they withdraw and the siege continues.
Wellington falls back into Portugal to rebuild his army, but the French
fail to take advantage.
(December) Napoleon Bonaparte decides to punish Tsar Alexander I for continuing
to trade with Great Britain. He begins to assemble his invasion army.
The disintegration of Spain's colonial empire continues.
1810 - 1811 - 1812
How they Were Made - 19th Century