Bertrand Russell, a prominent 20th century philosopher (particularly for his work in analytic philosophy and logic) made this highly interesting list of commandments for intellectual independence.
  1. Do not feel certain of anything.

  2. Do not feel it's worthwhile to hold on to a belief by concealing contrary evidence, for that evidence will surely come to light.

  3. Never discourage thinking (in a philosophical sense.)

  4. Overcome opposition via argument, not force. A victory based upon force is unreal and illusionary.

  5. Have no respect for the authority of others, for there will always be counter-authorities.

  6. Don't use force to suppress opinions which you think are dangerous, for if you do they will surely suppress you.

  7. Don't fear being different and eccentric, for every mainstream idea was at one time eccentric and different.

  8. Find pleasure in intelligent, not passive, agreement.

  9. Be scrupulously truthful, even when the truth is inconvenient, for it is always more inconvenient when you try to conceal truth.

  10. Don't feel envious of the happiness of those living in a fool's paradise, for only a fool would see it as true happiness.
Ah, the kind of things you find out in philosophy courses! Perhaps a philosophy degree is worth something, after all!

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