Are you eating right?


I took a nutrition class spring quarter last year. It has me very worried how many people out there are dieting incorrectly. First of all, some people are dieting when they don't need to. (Dude, you're not fat. Get over it.) And those who wish to diet, who could lose a few pounds, don't realize the healthiest way to lose weight is through exercise. (Dude, stop being lazy. There is no excuse. Go ahead and downvote me. See if I care.)

The one and only reason someone should want to diet is because they want to eat healthier and/or reduce the chances of chronic disease. Dieting should be a lifestyle change; turning over a new leaf, so to speak. It should be permanent. I know, it's not an easy task, trust me, I know. You can always try to change your diet slowly, gradually.

I noded the more important ideas I learned in nutrition class if you are dieting to gain/lose weight (or maintain it). I skipped all of the really important stuff like why you need certain vitamins and what diseases can develop due to lack of them and other such things. You would all be bored to death if I tried to add all that cool stuff. (Well, it's cool to me.)

The first step is to assess your diet. What are you eating now?
Write down the exact amount (or as close to exact as possible) of the foods you ate for the day. Yeah, yeah, moan and groan, it is a pain in the ass, but you will be using this diet to assess what needs to be changed and improved. If you can't remember them for the current day, record what you eat as you eat it the next day. Here is my recalled food intake:


Then comes the comparison. How does your day's diet compare with the Food Guide Pyramid? Since the node doesn't currently define what a serving is, I'll define it here and perhaps add it to the other node later (woo, more w/us). Each amount listed is the equivalent of 1 serving of that food type.
The top level:
Use fats, oils, sweets, (and alcohol) sparingly.

Second level:
Milk/Dairy -
Meat -

Third level:
Vegetables -
Fruits -
  • 1 medium sized fruit (about 4" diameter)
  • .5 c. cooked fruit
  • .75 c. juice

Fourth level:
Grains -

Here is how I did:
Food Group - Recommended Servings - My food items - Serving Number
  • Milk - 2 to 3 - Milk - 6
  • Meat - 2 to 3 - Ribs - 1.5
  • Vegetables - 3 to 5 - 0 - 0
  • Fruits - 2 to 4 - 0 - 0
  • Grains - 6 to 11 - Pasta and Rice - 5
I didn't do too bad, except that I was totally lacking in the fruit and veggies department.

The food guide pyramid is kind of dated, so they government came out with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Here are the recommendations:
  • Eat a variety of foods.
  • Balance the food you eat with physical activity -- maintain or improve your weight.
  • Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables, fruits (and legumes).
  • Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol.
  • Choose a diet moderate in sugars.
  • Choose a diet moderate in salt and sodium.
  • If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation.

Form good habits. ALWAYS read the Nutrition Facts label. How much fat, carbs, and protein are you getting? Enough, too little, too much?
When you diet, you don't have to just watch what you are eating, but what you ar drinking. Your body needs an average of 8-12 cups of water. Your body loses water through insensible losses (4-6 c.) - water losses we are not aware of, sweat (0-1 c., maybe more if you workout), and urine (4-5 c.). Your body should get water through metabolic water (1-2 c.) - formed as a waste product from the oxidation of food, food (3-4 c.), and beverages (4-6 c.). Also, know that 2 cups of water equals 1 lb. in your body.

What are your water needs, exactly?

  • My water needs.
  • Ideal body weight: 115 lbs.
  • Amount of body water = .6 x lbs. = 69 lbs.

The effects of dehydration in % body weight

How do I prevent dehydration?

Drink before exercising (2-4 c.), during (.5 c. per 15 mins.), and after (determine weight loss, drink to make up for water loss).

What happens to the food after I eat it?

Carbohydrates, once digested, are used as glucose. If you eat too much, it is stored as liver and muscle glycogen. Protein is converted into amino acids. If you have extra in your body, it is stored as body protein (muscle building and repairing). Fat is turned into fatty acids. Your body can produce fatty acids on its own, but not all. This is why it is a good idea to eat meat; it contains essential fatty acids. Essential fatty acids are the fatty acids which your body cannot produce. Extra fatty acids are then stored as body fat, adipose tissue. Alcohol, when consumed, is not converted into anything and, instead, is stored directly as adipose tissue (fat).

What happens to the stored nutrients?

When you get hungry, or fast, adipose tissue, or body fat, is turned into fatty acids. Liver and muscle glycogen, and/or body protein, can be converted into glucose. Body protein can also be turned into amino acids.

How many calories should I eat per day?

  • Follow my footsteps.
  • My ideal body weight is: 115 lbs.
  • Convert that into kg: 52.27
  • How physically active am I? Moderate. (Sedentary - .3, *Moderate - .4, or Very Active - .5 to .75)
  • Am I pregnant or lactating? No. (Pregnant 300 cal, Lactating 500 cal)
  • Basal Metabolic Rate = body weight (kg) x 24 cal/kg per day
  • Me: 52 x 24 (cal/kg per day) = 1254.54 cal/day
  • Thermic effect of food = BMR x .1
  • Me: 1254.5 x .1 = 125.45 cal/day
  • Thermic effect of exercise = (BMR + TEF) x activity level factor (sed., mod., active)
  • Me: (125.5 + 1254.5) x .4 = 551.997 cal/day
  • Total energy needs: BMR + TEF + TEE + (Pregnant or lactation factors)
  • Me: 125.5 + 1254.5 + 552 + 0 = 1932

I need 1932 calories per day to weigh 115 lbs.

Also, here is a chart of cal/day recommendations based on height (in inches), weight (in pounds), and age.

Age/Gender - Height - Weight - Range
15-18 Males - 69 - 145 - 2400 to 3600
19-24 Males - 70 - 160 - 2320 to 3480
25-50 Males - 70 - 174 - 2320 to 3480
51+ Males - 68 - 170 - 1840 to 2760

15-18 Females - 64 - 120 - 1760 to 2640
19-24 Females - 65 - 128 - 1760 to 2640
25-50 Females - 64 - 138 - 1760 to 2640
51+ Females - 63 - 143 - 1520 to 2280

How many carbs do I need?

  • Recommended cal/day: 1930 cal
  • Recommended % cal as carbs = .55 x cal
  • Me: .55 x 1930 = 1062.6 cal
  • Recommended intake of carbs = cal / 4 cal per gram
  • Me: 1062 / 4 = 265 grams

My recalled food intake:
2% Milk = 73.2 g
Capri Sun = ?
Hot Choco. = 78.3 g
Rice = 22.3 g
Pasta = 79.0 g


Total = 230.5 g
of carbs for that day. Pretty close to the recommendation.


How much fat do I need?

  • Recommended cal/day: 1932 cal
  • Recommended % cal as fat = .3 x cal
  • Me: .3 x 1932 = 579.6
  • Recommended intake of fat = cal / 9 cal per gram
  • Me: 579.6 / 9 = 64.4 grams of fat recommended per day

My recalled food intake:
Milk = 30 g
Choco = 09 g
Whipped cream = 06 g
Ribs = 66 g


Total = 111 g
of fat for that day. Double the recommendation is ok, but beyond that is unhealthy.


How much protein do I need?

  • Ideal body weight: 115 lbs.
  • In kg: 52.3 kg
  • RDA for protein = .8 g/kg x body weight
  • Me: .8 x 52.3 = 41.8 grams
  • 2xRDA for protein = 1.6 g/kg x body weight
  • Me: 1.6 x 52.3 = 83.6 grams

My recalled food intake:
Milk = 48 g
Choco. = 24 g
Rice = 02 g
Pasta = 18 g
Ribs = 45 g


Total = 137 g
of protein for that day. More than triple the recommendation. Double is ok, if you're working out, beyond this is unhealthy. My nutrition teacher wrote "3xRDA~125g!! and even told me in person that is too much protein. What can I say? I like protein.


To the vegetarians, vegans, and ovo-lacto people:

  • Remember to maintain weight
  • Get enough protein
  • Get enough essential amino acids
  • Get enough vitamins and minerals

To those following a specific diet plan:

  • Will you lose weight on this diet? Is it below the cal/day you need at your current weight? Do NOT eat less than 1000 calories. (Bad things happen.)
  • Is this a healthy way to lose weight? Does it have enough protein? (Ketosis!) Does it have enough fat (less than 30% of calories as fat)? Does it have enough carbs? (could damage BMR permanently!) You need all three (None of that miracle-i-didn't-eat-any-protein-and-now-i'm-a-tooth-pick diet bullshit.)
  • Will you be able to maintain your weight loss? Remember, this is a lifestyle change. To maintain a weight, you must keep up this diet.
  • Are you exercising with this diet, too? You should be, damnit!

国会

The Kokkai, called "Diet" in English but literally meaning "National Assembly," is the legislature of Japan. It was created in its current form by Chapter IV of the 1946 constitution, but was first put together after the bakufu of the Tokugawa family was toppled in the Meiji Restoration of 1868, when Ito Hirobumi became its first prime minister under the terms of the Meiji Constitution. The modern Diet is located in Nagata-cho in Tokyo, adjacent to administrative offices in Kasumigaseki.

The Diet is similar to the Parliament of the United Kingdom in function, and the Congress of the United States in structure (the latter comes from Douglas MacArthur, who redesigned the Diet during the Allied occupation of Japan: cf. House of Peers). In the constitution, it is divided into two houses, the upper Sangiin or House of Councillors (6-year terms) and the lower Shûgiin or House of Representatives (4-year terms), both elected by the Japanese people. An ordinary session of the Diet is opened every January, and the cabinet can call extraordinary sessions if it sees the need to do so. Both houses must approve legislation before it can become law, but Representatives can override Councillors' decisions with a two-thirds vote, and the lower house's decisions take precedence in budgetary and international relations matters.

The size of the Diet is not fixed in the constitution. There are currently 247 seats in the upper house and 480 in the lower house, for a total of 727 members. The middle-right Liberal Democratic Party is dominant in both houses: its opponents include the Democratic Party of Japan, New Komeito, Social Democratic Party of Japan, and Japanese Communist Party.

The Diet elects the prime minister, who sets up a cabinet to oversee Japan's many bureaucratic kanryo organs, where the country's true political power is said to be held. The cabinet-level agencies are:

Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications
Ministry of Justice
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport
Ministry of the Environment
National Public Safety Commission
Defense Agency

Links:
www.sangiin.go.jp - House of Councillors
www.shugiin.go.jp - House of Representatives
www.kantei.go.jp - Prime Minister and Cabinet
www.ndl.go.jp - National Diet Library

Di"et (?), n. [F. diete, L. diaeta, fr. Gr. manner of living.]

1.

Course of living or nourishment; what is eaten and drunk habitually; food; victuals; fare.

"No inconvenient diet."

Milton.

2.

A course of food selected with reference to a particular state of health; prescribed allowance of food; regimen prescribed.

To fast like one that takes diet. Shak.

Diet kitchen, a kitchen in which diet is prepared for invalids; a charitable establishment that provides proper food for the sick poor.

 

© Webster 1913.


Di"et, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Dieted; p. pr. & vb. n. Dieting.]

1.

To cause to take food; to feed.

[R.]

Shak.

2.

To cause to eat and drink sparingly, or by prescribed rules; to regulate medicinally the food of.

She diets him with fasting every day. Spenser.

 

© Webster 1913.


Di"et, v. i.

1.

To eat; to take one's meals.

[Obs.]

Let him . . . diet in such places, where there is good company of the nation, where he traveleth. Bacon.

2.

To eat according to prescribed rules; to ear sparingly; as, the doctor says he must diet.

 

© Webster 1913.


Di"et, n. [F. diete, LL. dieta, diaeta, an assembly, a day's journey; the same word as diet course of living, but with the sense changed by L. dies day: cf. G. tag day and Reichstag.]

A legislative or administrative assembly in Germany, Poland, and some other countries of Europe; a deliberative convention; a council; as, the Diet of Worms, held in 1521.

Specifically: Any of various national or local assemblies; as,

(a)

Occasionally, the Reichstag of the German Empire, Reichsrath of the Austrian Empire, the federal legislature of Switzerland, etc.

(b)

The legislature of Denmark, Sweden, Japan, or Hungary.

(c)

The state assembly or any of various local assemblies in the states of the German Empire, as the legislature (Landtag) of the kingdom of Prussia, and the Diet of the Circle (Kreistag) in its local government.

(d)

The local legislature (Landtag) of an Austrian province.

(e)

The federative assembly of the old Germanic Confederation (1815-66).

(f)

In the old German or Holy Roman Empire, the great formal assembly of counselors (the Imperial Diet or Reichstag) or a small, local, or informal assembly of a similar kind (the Court Diet, or Hoftag). The most celebrated Imperial Diets are the three following, all held under Charles V.: Diet of Worms, 1521, the object of which was to check the Reformation and which condemned Luther as a heretic; Diet of Spires, (or Diet of Speyer), 1529, which had the same object and issued an edict against the further dissemination of the new doctrines, against which edict Lutheran princes and deputies protested (hence Protestants): Diet of Augsburg, 1530, the object of which was the settlement of religious disputes, and at which the Augsburg Confession was presented but was denounced by the emperor, who put its adherents under the imperial ban.

 

© Webster 1913.

 

© Webster 1913.

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