Cyrillic is a kind of alphabet used in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Bulgaria, and Serbia. While the Western church was based in Rome (which used the Latin alphabet we see on this page), these countries were Christianized from Constantinople, which spoke Greek. St. Cyrill was the man who adapted the Greek alphabet for Eastern Europe. For a long time education meant reading the Bible, so even when European culture became more secular, the same alphabet tended to be used as in the local Bible translation.

Russian Alphabet (CP1251 encoded)

Under construction. More codeset problems. And to think it worked a few minutes ago.

Ah, I think I have it now.. directly inputing character codes seems to work.

I used CP1251 (MS-Windows code page 1251) because Everything doesn't seem to work correctly with KOI8-R.

Russian uses the Cyrillic alphabet, but it seems to differ slightly from other languages. For instance, Serbo-Croatian, when using the Cyrillic alphabet as the Serbs do, seems to include a J-like character (such as in Yugoslavia.) But I'm not a language expert and I certainly don't know Serbo-Croatian. As an autodidact, I only have a rudimentary reading knowledge of Russian. Your average Muscovite probably wouldn't be able to understand me very well, as I have not mastered pronounciation. Try to get a native speaker to pronounce these for you, and imitate him/her.

А, а. (ah) Pronounced like the English a in father, but short. French a in rat.
Б, б. (be) Pronounced like the English bet sans t. Use this e sound for ve, ghe, etc.
В, в. (ve) V as in vat.
Г, г. (ghe) g (hard) as in go and get; never soft as in gem.
Д, д. (de) d in dam, sad.
Е, е. (ye) ye in yet.
Ё ё (yo) almost like yaw in yawl, but shorter as if written yol. Always stressed.
Ж, ж. (zhe) like s in pleasure or z in azure. French je.
З, з. (ze) z in zone or s in rose.
И, и. (ee) like i in machine; or French i.
Й, й. (И С КРАТКОЙ -- ee with short mark) like И but short. Used to form dipthongs after another vowel, like our y in boy.
К, к. (ka) k as in kick.
Л, л. (el) hard Russian Л resembles our ll in ill, tell; soft ЛЬ like lli in million.
М, м. (em) m in met.
Н, н. (en) n in net.
О, о. (o) resembles o in port and is like Russian 'ye' without the y-sound.
П, п. (pe) p in pet.
Р, р. (err) well trilled (vibrated) sound resembled v of the Scotch. Never like the obscure English r in better.
С, с. (ess) hissing s as in most, puss.
Т, т. (te) like t in tom-tit.
У, у. (oo) like oo in foot. Not so long as oo in moon.
Ф, ф. (eff) f in fun-fair.
Х, х. (hha) hh-sound, like c in Scotch loch and in German ach. When soft resembles H in Hugo.
Ц, ц. (tse) combined t+s, as in sits. German z in zu.
Ч, ч. (che) ch in church.
Ш, ш. (sha) sh in ship.
Щ, щ. (shcha) rather like our shch-sound in Ashchurch, or in fresh chops said as one word.
Ъ, ъ.
Ы, ы.
Ь, ь.
Э, э.
Ю, ю. (yu)
Я, я. (ya)

The Cyrillic Alphabet suffers badly in the computing world. In comparison with the basic Latin alphabet and ASCII, there is no consistent encoding for Cyrillic. e.g. Windows and Macintosh have different numerical equivalents to the same cyrillic letter, though both restrain their variations to the "upper" region of the ASCII set (128 and greater), leaving the first half to the usual culprits. On the other hand, the Soviet KOI-7 charset uses its own numbering system from the ground up.

The original Cyrillic alphabet had 43 letters, which were necessary for the Old Church Slavonic language of Cyril and Methodius; modern Russian uses only 33 of them. Bulgarian, Serbian, and other Slavic languages use even fewer.

A lesser-known fact about the Cyrillic alphabet is that while most of its characters derive from Greek, three come from Hebrew. The characters for sh, shch, and ts are square, boxy versions of the Hebrew letters shin and tzaddi.

Russian Alphabet (CP1251 encoded)

Now you too can be cool and type with Russian characters for your writeups on all things Tolstoy and such. All you need is the following little code snippet and a browser that can interpret it.

The code below will produce a page with a textbox and the Russian alphabet. Click the letters to insert the correct HTML character codes in the box. You can remove codes and insert punctuation or regular text by simply editing directly in the box. When you're done, copy the result from the box and paste right into your node. Easier than walking!

<html>
<head><title>CP1251 HTMLizer</title></head>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
   function writelink(i) {
      document.write("<a href=");
      document.write(String.fromCharCode(34));
      document.write("javascript:document.result.code.value=");
      document.write("document.result.code.value + '&amp;#");
      document.write(i);
      document.write(";';void('');");
      document.write(String.fromCharCode(34));
      document.write(">");
      document.write(String.fromCharCode(i));
      document.write("</a> ")
   }

   document.write("<form name='result'>");
   document.write("<input type='text' name='code' size='40'>");
   document.write("</form><br><big><kbd>");
   for (var i = 1040; i < 1056; i++) { writelink(i) }
   document.write("<br>")
   for (var i = 1072; i < 1088; i++) { writelink(i) }
   document.write("<br><br>")
   for (var i = 1056; i < 1072; i++){ writelink(i) }
   document.write("<br>")
   for (var i = 1088; i < 1104; i++){ writelink(i) }
   document.write("</kbd></big>");
</script>
</body>
</html>

Cyrillic alphabet HTML

Cyrillic is supported as well as Greek is in HTML. Normally, you can just put it in a text file and tag it with the right character set. For Everything2, you need to use HTML entity; since HTML entities cover all of Unicode, there's no problem using Cyrillic or almost any other character you can think of.

Using Unicode on E2 has the entities for many more languages.

The Russian Alphabet in HTML:

&#x0410;   А
&#x0411;   Б
&#x0412;   В
&#x0413;   Г
&#x0414;   Д
&#x0415;   Е
&#x0416;   Ж
&#x0417;   З
&#x0418;   И
&#x0419;   Й
&#x041A;   К
&#x041B;   Л
&#x041C;   М
&#x041D;   Н
&#x041E;   О
&#x041F;   П
&#x0420;   Р
&#x0421;   С
&#x0422;   Т
&#x0423;   У
&#x0424;   Ф
&#x0425;   Х
&#x0426;   Ц
&#x0427;   Ч
&#x0428;   Ш
&#x0429;   Щ
&#x042A;   Ъ
&#x042B;   Ы
&#x042C;   Ь
&#x042D;   Э
&#x042E;   Ю
&#x042F;   Я
&#x0430;   а
&#x0431;   б
&#x0432;   в
&#x0433;   г
&#x0434;   д
&#x0435;   е
&#x0436;   ж
&#x0437;   з
&#x0438;   и
&#x0439;   й
&#x043A;   к
&#x043B;   л
&#x043C;   м
&#x043D;   н
&#x043E;   о
&#x043F;   п
&#x0440;   р
&#x0441;   с
&#x0442;   т
&#x0443;   у
&#x0444;   ф
&#x0445;   х
&#x0446;   ц
&#x0447;   ч
&#x0448;   ш
&#x0449;   щ
&#x044A;   ъ
&#x044B;   ы
&#x044C;   ь
&#x044D;   э
&#x044E;   ю
&#x044F;   я

There's more than one character set for Russian Cyrillic, however. The other one is below:

# & code  hex
А &#1040; 410
а &#1072; 430
Б &#1041; 411
б &#1073; 431
В &#1042; 412
в &#1074; 432
Г &#1043; 413
г &#1075; 433
Д &#1044; 414
д &#1076; 434
Е &#1045; 415
е &#1077; 435
Ж &#1046; 416
ж &#1078; 436
З &#1047; 417
з &#1079; 437
И &#1048; 418
и &#1080; 438
Й &#1049; 419
й &#1081; 439
К &#1050; 41A
к &#1082; 43A
Л &#1051; 41B
л &#1083; 43B
М &#1052; 41C
м &#1084; 43C
Н &#1053; 41D
н &#1085; 43D
О &#1054; 41E
о &#1086; 43E
П &#1055; 41F
п &#1087; 43F
Р &#1056; 420
р &#1088; 440
С &#1057; 421
с &#1089; 441
Т &#1058; 422
т &#1090; 442
У &#1059; 423
у &#1091; 443
Ф &#1060; 424
ф &#1092; 444
Х &#1061; 425
х &#1093; 445
Ц &#1062; 426
ц &#1094; 446
Ч &#1063; 427
ч &#1095; 447
Ш &#1064; 428
ш &#1096; 448
Щ &#1065; 429
щ &#1097; 449
Ъ &#1066; 42A
ъ &#1098; 44A
Ы &#1067; 42B
ы &#1099; 44B
Ь &#1068; 42C
ь &#1100; 44C
Э &#1069; 42D
э &#1101; 44D
Ю &#1070; 42E
ю &#1102; 44E
Я &#1071; 42F
я &#1103; 44F
The Cyrillic script is a member of the family of scripts strongly influenced by the Greek script. Cyrillic has traditionally been used for writing Slavic languages, among which Russian is predominant. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Cyrillic was extended to write the non-Slavic minority languages of the former Soviet Union.

The history of the creation of the Slavic scripts and their relationship has been lost. The Unicode standard regards Glagolitic as a separate script from Cyrillic, not as merely a font change from Cyrillic. This is primarily because Glagolitic appears unrecognizably different from Cyrillc, and secondarily because Glagolitic has not grown to match the expansion of Cyrillic. The Glagolitic script is not yet supported by the Unicode standard, but a 92 character code block has been proposed for inclusion.

See also Cyrillic alphabet and ISO 8859-5.


Unicode's Cyrillic code block reserves the 256 code points from U+0400 to U+04FF, of which all 256 are currently assigned.

Greek and Coptic <-- Cyrillic --> Cyrillic Supplement

Number of characters added in each version of the Unicode standard :
Unicode 1.1 : 226
Unicode 3.0 : 12
Unicode 3.2 : 8
Unicode 4.1 : 2
Unicode 5.0 : 7
Unicode 5.1 : 1

Number of characters in each General Category :

Letter, Uppercase  Lu :124
Letter, Lowercase  Ll :124
Mark, Non-Spacing  Mn :  5
Mark, Enclosing    Me :  2
Symbol, Other      So :  1

Number of characters in each Bidirectional Category :

Left To Right       L :249
Non Spacing Mark  NSM :  7

The columns below should be interpreted as :

  1. The Unicode code for the character
  2. The character in question
  3. The Unicode name for the character
  4. The Unicode General Category for the character
  5. The Unicode Bidirectional Category for the character
  6. The Unicode version when this character was added

If the characters below show up poorly, or not at all, see Unicode Support for possible solutions.

 

Cyrillic

     Cyrillic extensions

U+0400   Ѐ   Cyrillic capital letter ie with grave Lu L 3.0
U+0401   Ё   Cyrillic capital letter io Lu L 1.1
sgml &IOcy;
U+0402   Ђ   Cyrillic capital letter dje Lu L 1.1
sgml &DJcy;
U+0403   Ѓ   Cyrillic capital letter gje Lu L 1.1
sgml &GJcy;
U+0404   Є   Cyrillic capital letter ukrainian ie Lu L 1.1
sgml &Jukcy;
U+0405   Ѕ   Cyrillic capital letter dze Lu L 1.1
sgml &DScy;
U+0406   І   Cyrillic capital letter byelorussian ukrainian i Lu L 1.1
sgml &Iukcy;
ref U+0049   I   Latin capital letter I (Basic Latin)
ref U+0456   і   Cyrillic small letter byelorussian ukrainian i (Cyrillic)
ref U+04C0   Ӏ   Cyrillic letter palochka (Cyrillic)
U+0407   Ї   Cyrillic capital letter Yi Lu L 1.1
sgml &YIcy;
U+0408   Ј   Cyrillic capital letter je Lu L 1.1
sgml &Jsercy;
U+0409   Љ   Cyrillic capital letter lje Lu L 1.1
sgml &LJcy;
U+040A   Њ   Cyrillic capital letter nje Lu L 1.1
sgml &NJcy;
U+040B   Ћ   Cyrillic capital letter tshe Lu L 1.1
sgml &TSHcy;
U+040C   Ќ   Cyrillic capital letter kje Lu L 1.1
sgml &KJcy;
U+040D   Ѝ   Cyrillic capital letter I with grave Lu L 3.0
U+040E   Ў   Cyrillic capital letter short u Lu L 1.1
sgml &Ubrcy;
U+040F   Џ   Cyrillic capital letter dzhe Lu L 1.1
sgml &DZcy;

     Basic Russian alphabet

U+0410   А   Cyrillic capital letter A Lu L 1.1
sgml &Acy;
U+0411   Б   Cyrillic capital letter be Lu L 1.1
sgml &Bcy;
ref U+0183   ƃ   Latin small letter B with topbar (Latin Extended B)
U+0412   В   Cyrillic capital letter ve Lu L 1.1
sgml &Vcy;
U+0413   Г   Cyrillic capital letter ghe Lu L 1.1
sgml &Gcy;
U+0414   Д   Cyrillic capital letter de Lu L 1.1
sgml &Dcy;
U+0415   Е   Cyrillic capital letter ie Lu L 1.1
sgml &IEcy;
U+0416   Ж   Cyrillic capital letter zhe Lu L 1.1
sgml &ZHcy;
U+0417   З   Cyrillic capital letter ze Lu L 1.1
sgml &Zcy;
U+0418   И   Cyrillic capital letter I Lu L 1.1
sgml &Icy;
U+0419   Й   Cyrillic capital letter short i Lu L 1.1
sgml &Jcy;
U+041A   К   Cyrillic capital letter ka Lu L 1.1
sgml &Kcy;
U+041B   Л   Cyrillic capital letter el Lu L 1.1
sgml &Lcy;
U+041C   М   Cyrillic capital letter em Lu L 1.1
sgml &Mcy;
U+041D   Н   Cyrillic capital letter en Lu L 1.1
sgml &Ncy;
U+041E   О   Cyrillic capital letter O Lu L 1.1
sgml &Ocy;
U+041F   П   Cyrillic capital letter pe Lu L 1.1
sgml &Pcy;
U+0420   Р   Cyrillic capital letter er Lu L 1.1
sgml &Rcy;
U+0421   С   Cyrillic capital letter es Lu L 1.1
sgml &Scy;
U+0422   Т   Cyrillic capital letter te Lu L 1.1
sgml &Tcy;
U+0423   У   Cyrillic capital letter U Lu L 1.1
sgml &Ucy;
ref U+0478   Ѹ   Cyrillic capital letter uk (Cyrillic)
ref U+04AF   ү   Cyrillic small letter straight u (Cyrillic)
ref U+A64A   Ꙋ   Cyrillic capital letter monograph uk (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+0424   Ф   Cyrillic capital letter ef Lu L 1.1
sgml &Fcy;
U+0425   Х   Cyrillic capital letter ha Lu L 1.1
sgml &KHcy;
U+0426   Ц   Cyrillic capital letter tse Lu L 1.1
sgml &TScy;
U+0427   Ч   Cyrillic capital letter che Lu L 1.1
sgml &CHcy;
U+0428   Ш   Cyrillic capital letter sha Lu L 1.1
sgml &SHcy;
U+0429   Щ   Cyrillic capital letter shcha Lu L 1.1
sgml &SHCHcy;
U+042A   Ъ   Cyrillic capital letter hard sign Lu L 1.1
sgml &HARDcy;
U+042B   Ы   Cyrillic capital letter yeru Lu L 1.1
sgml &Ycy;
U+042C   Ь   Cyrillic capital letter soft sign Lu L 1.1
sgml &SOFTcy;
U+042D   Э   Cyrillic capital letter E Lu L 1.1
sgml &Ecy;
U+042E   Ю   Cyrillic capital letter yu Lu L 1.1
sgml &YUcy;
U+042F   Я   Cyrillic capital letter ya Lu L 1.1
sgml &YAcy;
U+0430   а   Cyrillic small letter A Ll L 1.1
sgml &acy;
U+0431   б   Cyrillic small letter be Ll L 1.1
sgml &bcy;
U+0432   в   Cyrillic small letter ve Ll L 1.1
sgml &vcy;
U+0433   г   Cyrillic small letter ghe Ll L 1.1
sgml &gcy;
U+0434   д   Cyrillic small letter de Ll L 1.1
sgml &dcy;
U+0435   е   Cyrillic small letter ie Ll L 1.1
sgml &iecy;
U+0436   ж   Cyrillic small letter zhe Ll L 1.1
sgml &zhcy;
U+0437   з   Cyrillic small letter ze Ll L 1.1
sgml &zcy;
U+0438   и   Cyrillic small letter I Ll L 1.1
sgml &icy;
U+0439   й   Cyrillic small letter short i Ll L 1.1
sgml &jcy;
U+043A   к   Cyrillic small letter ka Ll L 1.1
sgml &kcy;
U+043B   л   Cyrillic small letter el Ll L 1.1
sgml &lcy;
U+043C   м   Cyrillic small letter em Ll L 1.1
sgml &mcy;
U+043D   н   Cyrillic small letter en Ll L 1.1
sgml &ncy;
U+043E   о   Cyrillic small letter O Ll L 1.1
sgml &ocy;
U+043F   п   Cyrillic small letter pe Ll L 1.1
sgml &pcy;
U+0440   р   Cyrillic small letter er Ll L 1.1
sgml &rcy;
U+0441   с   Cyrillic small letter es Ll L 1.1
sgml &scy;
U+0442   т   Cyrillic small letter te Ll L 1.1
sgml &tcy;
U+0443   у   Cyrillic small letter U Ll L 1.1
sgml &ucy;
U+0444   ф   Cyrillic small letter ef Ll L 1.1
sgml &fcy;
U+0445   х   Cyrillic small letter ha Ll L 1.1
sgml &khcy;
U+0446   ц   Cyrillic small letter tse Ll L 1.1
sgml &tscy;
U+0447   ч   Cyrillic small letter che Ll L 1.1
sgml &chcy;
U+0448   ш   Cyrillic small letter sha Ll L 1.1
sgml &shcy;
U+0449   щ   Cyrillic small letter shcha Ll L 1.1
sgml &shchcy;
U+044A   ъ   Cyrillic small letter hard sign Ll L 1.1
sgml &hardcy;
U+044B   ы   Cyrillic small letter yeru Ll L 1.1
sgml &ycy;
ref U+A651   ꙑ   Cyrillic small letter yeru with back yer (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+044C   ь   Cyrillic small letter soft sign Ll L 1.1
sgml &softcy;
ref U+0185   ƅ   Latin small letter tone six (Latin Extended B)
ref U+A64F   ꙏ   Cyrillic small letter neutral yer (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+044D   э   Cyrillic small letter E Ll L 1.1
sgml &ecy;
U+044E   ю   Cyrillic small letter yu Ll L 1.1
sgml &yucy;
ref U+A655   ꙕ   Cyrillic small letter reversed yu (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+044F   я   Cyrillic small letter ya Ll L 1.1
sgml &yacy;

     Cyrillic extensions

U+0450   ѐ   Cyrillic small letter ie with grave Ll L 3.0
* Macedonian
U+0451   ё   Cyrillic small letter io Ll L 1.1
sgml &iocy;
* Russian, ...
U+0452   ђ   Cyrillic small letter dje Ll L 1.1
sgml &djcy;
* Serbian
ref U+0111   đ   Latin small letter D with stroke (Latin Extended A)
U+0453   ѓ   Cyrillic small letter gje Ll L 1.1
sgml &gjcy;
* Macedonian
U+0454   є   Cyrillic small letter ukrainian ie Ll L 1.1
sgml &jukcy;
aka old Cyrillic yest
U+0455   ѕ   Cyrillic small letter dze Ll L 1.1
sgml &dscy;
* Macedonian
ref U+A643   ꙃ   Cyrillic small letter dzelo (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+0456   і   Cyrillic small letter byelorussian ukrainian i Ll L 1.1
sgml &iukcy;
aka old Cyrillic i
U+0457   ї   Cyrillic small letter Yi Ll L 1.1
sgml &yicy;
* Ukrainian
U+0458   ј   Cyrillic small letter je Ll L 1.1
sgml &jsercy;
* Serbian, Azerbaijani, Altay
U+0459   љ   Cyrillic small letter lje Ll L 1.1
sgml &ljcy;
* Serbian, Macedonian
ref U+01C9   lj   Latin small letter lj (Latin Extended B)
U+045A   њ   Cyrillic small letter nje Ll L 1.1
sgml &njcy;
* Serbian, Macedonian
ref U+01CC   nj   Latin small letter nj (Latin Extended B)
U+045B   ћ   Cyrillic small letter tshe Ll L 1.1
sgml &tshcy;
* Serbian
ref U+0107   ć   Latin small letter C with acute (Latin Extended A)
ref U+0127   ħ   Latin small letter H with stroke (Latin Extended A)
ref U+040B   Ћ   Cyrillic capital letter tshe (Cyrillic)
ref U+210F   ℏ   planck constant over two pi (Letterlike Symbols)
ref U+A649   ꙉ   Cyrillic small letter djerv (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+045C   ќ   Cyrillic small letter kje Ll L 1.1
sgml &kjcy;
* Macedonian
U+045D   ѝ   Cyrillic small letter I with grave Ll L 3.0
* Macedonian, Bulgarian
U+045E   ў   Cyrillic small letter short u Ll L 1.1
sgml &ubrcy;
* Byelorussian, Uzbek
U+045F   џ   Cyrillic small letter dzhe Ll L 1.1
sgml &dzcy;
* Serbian, Macedonian, Abkhasian
ref U+01C6   dž   Latin small letter dz with caron (Latin Extended B)

     Historic letters

U+0460   Ѡ   Cyrillic capital letter omega Lu L 1.1
U+0461   ѡ   Cyrillic small letter omega Ll L 1.1
ref U+A64D   ꙍ   Cyrillic small letter broad omega (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+0462   Ѣ   Cyrillic capital letter yat Lu L 1.1
U+0463   ѣ   Cyrillic small letter yat Ll L 1.1
ref U+A653   ꙓ   Cyrillic small letter iotified yat (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+0464   Ѥ   Cyrillic capital letter iotified e Lu L 1.1
U+0465   ѥ   Cyrillic small letter iotified e Ll L 1.1
U+0466   Ѧ   Cyrillic capital letter little yus Lu L 1.1
U+0467   ѧ   Cyrillic small letter little yus Ll L 1.1
ref U+A659   ꙙ   Cyrillic small letter closed little yus (Cyrillic Extended B)
ref U+A65B   ꙛ   Cyrillic small letter blended yus (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+0468   Ѩ   Cyrillic capital letter iotified little yus Lu L 1.1
U+0469   ѩ   Cyrillic small letter iotified little yus Ll L 1.1
ref U+044F   я   Cyrillic small letter ya (Cyrillic)
ref U+A657   ꙗ   Cyrillic small letter iotified a (Cyrillic Extended B)
ref U+A65D   ꙝ   Cyrillic small letter iotified closed little yus (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+046A   Ѫ   Cyrillic capital letter big yus Lu L 1.1
U+046B   ѫ   Cyrillic small letter big yus Ll L 1.1
ref U+A65B   ꙛ   Cyrillic small letter blended yus (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+046C   Ѭ   Cyrillic capital letter iotified big yus Lu L 1.1
U+046D   ѭ   Cyrillic small letter iotified big yus Ll L 1.1
U+046E   Ѯ   Cyrillic capital letter ksi Lu L 1.1
U+046F   ѯ   Cyrillic small letter ksi Ll L 1.1
U+0470   Ѱ   Cyrillic capital letter psi Lu L 1.1
U+0471   ѱ   Cyrillic small letter psi Ll L 1.1
U+0472   Ѳ   Cyrillic capital letter fita Lu L 1.1
U+0473   ѳ   Cyrillic small letter fita Ll L 1.1
ref U+0275   ɵ   Latin small letter barred o (IPA Extensions)
ref U+03B8   θ   Greek small letter theta (Greek and Coptic)
U+0474   Ѵ   Cyrillic capital letter izhitsa Lu L 1.1
U+0475   ѵ   Cyrillic small letter izhitsa Ll L 1.1
U+0476   Ѷ   Cyrillic capital letter izhitsa with double grave accent Lu L 1.1
U+0477   ѷ   Cyrillic small letter izhitsa with double grave accent Ll L 1.1
U+0478   Ѹ   Cyrillic capital letter uk Lu L 1.1
* may be rendered as either monograph or digraph form
* for "digraph uk" the preferred spelling is 041E 0443
* (cyrillic capital letter monograph uk - A64A)
ref U+0423   У   Cyrillic capital letter U (Cyrillic)
U+0479   ѹ   Cyrillic small letter uk Ll L 1.1
* for "digraph uk" the preferred spelling is 043E 0443
* (cyrillic small letter monograph uk - A64B)
U+047A   Ѻ   Cyrillic capital letter round omega Lu L 1.1
U+047B   ѻ   Cyrillic small letter round omega Ll L 1.1
U+047C   Ѽ   Cyrillic capital letter omega with titlo Lu L 1.1
aka Cyrillic "beautiful omega"
* despite its name, this character does not have a titlo, nor is it composed of an omega plus a diacritic
* (cyrillic capital letter broad omega - A64C)
U+047D   ѽ   Cyrillic small letter omega with titlo Ll L 1.1
U+047E   Ѿ   Cyrillic capital letter ot Lu L 1.1
U+047F   ѿ   Cyrillic small letter ot Ll L 1.1
U+0480   Ҁ   Cyrillic capital letter koppa Lu L 1.1
U+0481   ҁ   Cyrillic small letter koppa Ll L 1.1

     Historic miscellaneous

U+0482   ҂   Cyrillic thousands sign So L 1.1
U+0483   ҃   combining Cyrillic titlo Mn NSM 1.1
* not used with letter titlos
ref U+A66F   ꙯   combining Cyrillic vzmet (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+0484   ҄   combining Cyrillic palatalization Mn NSM 1.1
ref U+033E   ̾   combining vertical tilde (Combining Diacritical Marks)
U+0485   ҅   combining Cyrillic dasia pneumata Mn NSM 1.1
ref U+0314   ̔   combining reversed comma above (Combining Diacritical Marks)
U+0486   ҆   combining Cyrillic psili pneumata Mn NSM 1.1
ref U+0313   ̓   combining comma above (Combining Diacritical Marks)
U+0487   ҇   combining Cyrillic pokrytie Mn NSM 5.1
* used only with letter titlos
ref U+0311   ̑   combining inverted breve (Combining Diacritical Marks)
ref U+A66F   ꙯   combining Cyrillic vzmet (Cyrillic Extended B)
U+0488   ҈   combining Cyrillic hundred thousands sign Me NSM 3.0
* use 20DD for ten thousands sign
U+0489   ҉   combining Cyrillic millions sign Me NSM 3.0
ref U+A670   ꙰   combining Cyrillic ten millions sign (Cyrillic Extended B)

     Extended Cyrillic

U+048A   Ҋ   Cyrillic capital letter short i with tail Lu L 3.2
U+048B   ҋ   Cyrillic small letter short i with tail Ll L 3.2
* Kildin Sami
U+048C   Ҍ   Cyrillic capital letter semisoft sign Lu L 3.0
U+048D   ҍ   Cyrillic small letter semisoft sign Ll L 3.0
* Kildin Sami
U+048E   Ҏ   Cyrillic capital letter er with tick Lu L 3.0
U+048F   ҏ   Cyrillic small letter er with tick Ll L 3.0
* Kildin Sami
U+0490   Ґ   Cyrillic capital letter ghe with upturn Lu L 1.1
U+0491   ґ   Cyrillic small letter ghe with upturn Ll L 1.1
* Ukrainian
U+0492   Ғ   Cyrillic capital letter ghe with stroke Lu L 1.1
U+0493   ғ   Cyrillic small letter ghe with stroke Ll L 1.1
* Azerbaijani, Bashkir, ...
* full bar form preferred over half-barred "F"-type
U+0494   Ҕ   Cyrillic capital letter ghe with middle hook Lu L 1.1
U+0495   ҕ   Cyrillic small letter ghe with middle hook Ll L 1.1
* Abkhasian, Yakut
U+0496   Җ   Cyrillic capital letter zhe with descender Lu L 1.1
U+0497   җ   Cyrillic small letter zhe with descender Ll L 1.1
* Tatar, ...
U+0498   Ҙ   Cyrillic capital letter ze with descender Lu L 1.1
U+0499   ҙ   Cyrillic small letter ze with descender Ll L 1.1
* Bashkir
* letterforms with right hooks are preferred, although occasional variants with left hooks occur
U+049A   Қ   Cyrillic capital letter ka with descender Lu L 1.1
U+049B   қ   Cyrillic small letter ka with descender Ll L 1.1
* Abkhasian, Tajik, ...
U+049C   Ҝ   Cyrillic capital letter ka with vertical stroke Lu L 1.1
U+049D   ҝ   Cyrillic small letter ka with vertical stroke Ll L 1.1
* Azerbaijani
U+049E   Ҟ   Cyrillic capital letter ka with stroke Lu L 1.1
U+049F   ҟ   Cyrillic small letter ka with stroke Ll L 1.1
* Abkhasian
U+04A0   Ҡ   Cyrillic capital letter bashkir ka Lu L 1.1
U+04A1   ҡ   Cyrillic small letter bashkir ka Ll L 1.1
U+04A2   Ң   Cyrillic capital letter en with descender Lu L 1.1
U+04A3   ң   Cyrillic small letter en with descender Ll L 1.1
* Bashkir, ...
U+04A4   Ҥ   Cyrillic capital ligature en ghe Lu L 1.1
U+04A5   ҥ   Cyrillic small ligature en ghe Ll L 1.1
* Altay, Mari, Yakut
* this is not a decomposable ligature
U+04A6   Ҧ   Cyrillic capital letter pe with middle hook Lu L 1.1
U+04A7   ҧ   Cyrillic small letter pe with middle hook Ll L 1.1
* Abkhasian
U+04A8   Ҩ   Cyrillic capital letter abkhasian ha Lu L 1.1
U+04A9   ҩ   Cyrillic small letter abkhasian ha Ll L 1.1
U+04AA   Ҫ   Cyrillic capital letter es with descender Lu L 1.1
U+04AB   ҫ   Cyrillic small letter es with descender Ll L 1.1
* Bashkir, Chuvash
* letterforms with right hooks are preferred, although occasional variants with left hooks occur
* in Chuvashia, letterforms identical to or similar in form to 00E7 regularly occur
U+04AC   Ҭ   Cyrillic capital letter te with descender Lu L 1.1
U+04AD   ҭ   Cyrillic small letter te with descender Ll L 1.1
* Abkhasian
U+04AE   Ү   Cyrillic capital letter straight u Lu L 1.1
U+04AF   ү   Cyrillic small letter straight u Ll L 1.1
* stem is straight, unlike LETTER U
* Azerbaijani, Bashkir, ...
ref U+0423   У   Cyrillic capital letter U (Cyrillic)
U+04B0   Ұ   Cyrillic capital letter straight u with stroke Lu L 1.1
U+04B1   ұ   Cyrillic small letter straight u with stroke Ll L 1.1
* Kazakh
U+04B2   Ҳ   Cyrillic capital letter ha with descender Lu L 1.1
U+04B3   ҳ   Cyrillic small letter ha with descender Ll L 1.1
* Abkhasian, Tajik, Uzbek
U+04B4   Ҵ   Cyrillic capital ligature te tse Lu L 1.1
U+04B5   ҵ   Cyrillic small ligature te tse Ll L 1.1
* Abkhasian
* this is not a decomposable ligature
U+04B6   Ҷ   Cyrillic capital letter che with descender Lu L 1.1
U+04B7   ҷ   Cyrillic small letter che with descender Ll L 1.1
* Abkhasian, Tajik
U+04B8   Ҹ   Cyrillic capital letter che with vertical stroke Lu L 1.1
U+04B9   ҹ   Cyrillic small letter che with vertical stroke Ll L 1.1
* Azerbaijani
U+04BA   Һ   Cyrillic capital letter shha Lu L 1.1
U+04BB   һ   Cyrillic small letter shha Ll L 1.1
* originally derived from Latin "h", but uppercase form 04BA is closer to an inverted che (0427)
* Azerbaijani, Bashkir, ...
ref U+0068   h   Latin small letter H (Basic Latin)
U+04BC   Ҽ   Cyrillic capital letter abkhasian che Lu L 1.1
U+04BD   ҽ   Cyrillic small letter abkhasian che Ll L 1.1
U+04BE   Ҿ   Cyrillic capital letter abkhasian che with descender Lu L 1.1
U+04BF   ҿ   Cyrillic small letter abkhasian che with descender Ll L 1.1
* ogonek form preferred
U+04C0   Ӏ   Cyrillic letter palochka Lu L 1.1
* aspiration sign in many Caucasian languages
* is usually not cased, but the formal lowercase is 04CF
ref U+0049   I   Latin capital letter I (Basic Latin)
ref U+0406   І   Cyrillic capital letter byelorussian ukrainian i (Cyrillic)
U+04C1   Ӂ   Cyrillic capital letter zhe with breve Lu L 1.1
U+04C2   ӂ   Cyrillic small letter zhe with breve Ll L 1.1
* Moldavian
U+04C3   Ӄ   Cyrillic capital letter ka with hook Lu L 1.1
U+04C4   ӄ   Cyrillic small letter ka with hook Ll L 1.1
* Khanty, Chukchi
U+04C5   Ӆ   Cyrillic capital letter el with tail Lu L 3.2
U+04C6   ӆ   Cyrillic small letter el with tail Ll L 3.2
* Kildin Sami
U+04C7   Ӈ   Cyrillic capital letter en with hook Lu L 1.1
U+04C8   ӈ   Cyrillic small letter en with hook Ll L 1.1
* Khanty, Chukchi, Nenets
U+04C9   Ӊ   Cyrillic capital letter en with tail Lu L 3.2
U+04CA   ӊ   Cyrillic small letter en with tail Ll L 3.2
* Kildin Sami
U+04CB   Ӌ   Cyrillic capital letter khakassian che Lu L 1.1
U+04CC   ӌ   Cyrillic small letter khakassian che Ll L 1.1
U+04CD   Ӎ   Cyrillic capital letter em with tail Lu L 3.2
U+04CE   ӎ   Cyrillic small letter em with tail Ll L 3.2
* Kildin Sami
U+04CF   ӏ   Cyrillic small letter palochka Ll L 5.0
U+04D0   Ӑ   Cyrillic capital letter A with breve Lu L 1.1
U+04D1   ӑ   Cyrillic small letter A with breve Ll L 1.1
U+04D2   Ӓ   Cyrillic capital letter A with diaeresis Lu L 1.1
U+04D3   ӓ   Cyrillic small letter A with diaeresis Ll L 1.1
U+04D4   Ӕ   Cyrillic capital ligature a ie Lu L 1.1
U+04D5   ӕ   Cyrillic small ligature a ie Ll L 1.1
* this is not a decomposable ligature
ref U+00E6   æ   Latin small letter ae (Latin-1 Supplement)
U+04D6   Ӗ   Cyrillic capital letter ie with breve Lu L 1.1
U+04D7   ӗ   Cyrillic small letter ie with breve Ll L 1.1
U+04D8   Ә   Cyrillic capital letter schwa Lu L 1.1
U+04D9   ә   Cyrillic small letter schwa Ll L 1.1
ref U+0259   ə   Latin small letter schwa (IPA Extensions)
U+04DA   Ӛ   Cyrillic capital letter schwa with diaeresis Lu L 1.1
U+04DB   ӛ   Cyrillic small letter schwa with diaeresis Ll L 1.1
U+04DC   Ӝ   Cyrillic capital letter zhe with diaeresis Lu L 1.1
U+04DD   ӝ   Cyrillic small letter zhe with diaeresis Ll L 1.1
U+04DE   Ӟ   Cyrillic capital letter ze with diaeresis Lu L 1.1
U+04DF   ӟ   Cyrillic small letter ze with diaeresis Ll L 1.1
U+04E0   Ӡ   Cyrillic capital letter abkhasian dze Lu L 1.1
U+04E1   ӡ   Cyrillic small letter abkhasian dze Ll L 1.1
ref U+0292   ʒ   Latin small letter ezh (IPA Extensions)
U+04E2   Ӣ   Cyrillic capital letter I with macron Lu L 1.1
U+04E3   ӣ   Cyrillic small letter I with macron Ll L 1.1
U+04E4   Ӥ   Cyrillic capital letter I with diaeresis Lu L 1.1
U+04E5   ӥ   Cyrillic small letter I with diaeresis Ll L 1.1
U+04E6   Ӧ   Cyrillic capital letter O with diaeresis Lu L 1.1
U+04E7   ӧ   Cyrillic small letter O with diaeresis Ll L 1.1
U+04E8   Ө   Cyrillic capital letter barred o Lu L 1.1
U+04E9   ө   Cyrillic small letter barred o Ll L 1.1
ref U+0275   ɵ   Latin small letter barred o (IPA Extensions)
U+04EA   Ӫ   Cyrillic capital letter barred o with diaeresis Lu L 1.1
U+04EB   ӫ   Cyrillic small letter barred o with diaeresis Ll L 1.1
U+04EC   Ӭ   Cyrillic capital letter E with diaeresis Lu L 3.0
U+04ED   ӭ   Cyrillic small letter E with diaeresis Ll L 3.0
* Kildin Sami
U+04EE   Ӯ   Cyrillic capital letter U with macron Lu L 1.1
U+04EF   ӯ   Cyrillic small letter U with macron Ll L 1.1
U+04F0   Ӱ   Cyrillic capital letter U with diaeresis Lu L 1.1
U+04F1   ӱ   Cyrillic small letter U with diaeresis Ll L 1.1
U+04F2   Ӳ   Cyrillic capital letter U with double acute Lu L 1.1
U+04F3   ӳ   Cyrillic small letter U with double acute Ll L 1.1
U+04F4   Ӵ   Cyrillic capital letter che with diaeresis Lu L 1.1
U+04F5   ӵ   Cyrillic small letter che with diaeresis Ll L 1.1
U+04F6   Ӷ   Cyrillic capital letter ghe with descender Lu L 4.1
U+04F7   ӷ   Cyrillic small letter ghe with descender Ll L 4.1
* Yupik
U+04F8   Ӹ   Cyrillic capital letter yeru with diaeresis Lu L 1.1
U+04F9   ӹ   Cyrillic small letter yeru with diaeresis Ll L 1.1

     Additions for Nivkh

U+04FA   Ӻ   Cyrillic capital letter ghe with stroke and hook Lu L 5.0
U+04FB   ӻ   Cyrillic small letter ghe with stroke and hook Ll L 5.0
U+04FC   Ӽ   Cyrillic capital letter ha with hook Lu L 5.0
U+04FD   ӽ   Cyrillic small letter ha with hook Ll L 5.0
U+04FE   Ӿ   Cyrillic capital letter ha with stroke Lu L 5.0
U+04FF   ӿ   Cyrillic small letter ha with stroke Ll L 5.0

http://unicode.org
Some prose may have been lifted verbatim from unicode.org,
as is permitted by their terms of use at http://www.unicode.org/copyright.html

There are couple of things that often causes problems in Cyrillic: the fact that there are many different character sets (well, you can get pretty far with KOI8 and ISO 8859-5...) and then there's the problem of transliteration (romanization).

Character sets

As mentioned, in the Internet it's best to stick with either of the two character sets mentioned. Most browsers seem to support at least KOI8, so that's a good start. Latin-5 (ISO 8859-5) is pretty nice, too. There are some other character sets (Most notable is Windows-1251, aka CP1251 (thanks, AT.)).

However, in many cases it's advisable to move to UTF-8. You get the freedom to use weird European characters too if you need them. Or those Oriental languages. Too bad Klingon and Elvish didn't get into the standard.

In Everything2, Latin-1 character set is used. This means you cannot use Cyrillic as is - unless you use HTML character entities. Here's a tip: get GNU Recode, and use it to translate your text to "html4" character set. Cyrillic HTML character entities probably look like &#x04.. (that is, the first two hex digits are 04. In decimal, it's somewhere around 1070-1120???)

Transliteration

Transliteration does not have a widely used fixed system! Personally, when I was studying Russian, all transliterated passages followed, naturally, Finnish orthography. In English-using websites, I've seen English-style orthography being used. Then there are those bastards who don't follow the letter-for-letter thing and end up making a pronouncation-based transliteration.

(In keis juu didn't get wai it's wroong: Wot wud juu sei if ai'd staat wraiting inglish laik this? Juu probabli wudn't laik it! =)

Transliterating foreign names to Cyrillic usually follows the phonetic rules in Russian, but that's more like a necessity... Often I've seen people's names that are in Russian text mentionmed in both transliterated and Latin forms.

There is a standard for Cyrillic-to-Latin transliteration, however. The current international Cyrillic to Latin transliteration standard is ISO 9:1995. Following describes a quick look at it. (This was taken from Jukka Korpela's excellent document "Venäjän translitterointi", http://www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/iso9.htm8). This covers only the modern Russian, though.

The mostly easy, unambiguous, simple cases

а ⇒ a
б ⇒ b
в ⇒ v
г ⇒ g
д ⇒ d
и ⇒ i
к ⇒ k
л ⇒ l
м ⇒ m
н ⇒ n
о ⇒ o
п ⇒ p
р ⇒ r
т ⇒ t
г ⇒ u
ф ⇒ f

The "h"

х ⇒ h

Seen spelled as 'h' or 'kh' (it's a hard 'h' sound). It's h. Trust me.

The "Yee-yee gang"

е ⇒ e
ё ⇒ ë (Unicode U+00EB)
э ⇒ è (Unicode U+00E8)
ю ⇒ û (Unicode U+00FB)
я ⇒ â (Unicode U+00E2)

Most problems are caused by e (should it be "e", "ye" or "je"???)

The "i" variants

й ⇒ j
ы ⇒ y

The Seven Sibilants

с ⇒ s
ш ⇒ š (Unicode U+0161)
щ ⇒ ŝ (Unicode U+105D)
ц ⇒ c
ч ⇒ č (Unicode U+010D)
з ⇒ z
ж ⇒ ž (Unicode U+017E)

Here, a huge pool of really, really nasty stuff. Variations on the spelling of this stuff cannot be counted with just fingers, I think I need toes too.

Inaudible

ь ⇒ ʹ (Unicode U+02B9)
ъ ⇒ ʺ (Unicode U+02BA)

Some transliterations leave these out entirely. (Well, the "hard sign" is pretty rare though...)

A helpful/helpless transliteration example

Но я очень плохо говорю по-русски! = No â očenʹ ploho govorû po-russki!

Hey, them Switzerlanders invented a way to automatically translate Russian to Czech! =)

And, how it would have gone in...

English, pronouncation-wise:
Nu ya oochen plookha gavaryu pa-russki! (Ack)
English, somewhat better:
No ya ochen ploha gavaryu po-russki!
Finnish, likewise:
No ja otshen ploha gavarju po-russki!

(In case you're wondering what that means: "Well, I speak Russian pretty badly!")

This "official" transliteration is pretty painful to use without Unicode-capable text editor, but at least it's never ambiguous, works both ways, and is mostly understandable!

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