A program of behavior modification using a reward (the token) as reinforcement for appropriate behavior. These can be exchanged later for candy, cigarettes, or special privileges. Poker chips and play money seem to be the tokens of choice for most institutions.

The usual methodology involves rewarding and fining the patients according to a preset list of acceptable and unacceptable behavior. In order to exchange these tokens for rewards the patient is often required to sustain appropriate behavior over extended periods of time. Sometimes correlating the period of time with the amount of reward extends the reinforcement to include continuity.

The success of this method is limited because patients tend to relapse into unacceptable behavior when reinforcements are lifted. It seems to work best with schizophrenic s who have trouble with social interactions and taking care of themselves. Obviously it doesn't work so well with some of the other symptoms of schizophrenia like delusions and hallucinations.