Caliph from 644 to his death in 656. The third of the so-called Four Righteous Caliphs (al-khulafa al-rashidun), Uthman succeeded Umar (Caliph 634-644) upon Umar's assassination.
Favorising his own family, the Umayyad, Uthman was soon charged with nepotism by his political opponents. Controversy also surrounded his pay cuts for soldiers, and his decision to order an authorised version of the Quran to be created, and all other versions to be burned.
A rebellion ensued, and Uthman was killed in Madinah (Medina) by units of the Caliphate army from Egypt and Iraq.