Naples is the third largest city in Italy after Rome
Historically, Naples has been an important seaport located upon the Tyrrhenian Sea. Naples was originally a Greek colony (from which it gets its name - Neapolis meaning "New City") until it came under Roman control about 325 B.C.. The warm climate and sea made it a welcome resort for wealthy Romans who included the poet Virgil who lived in Naples for over 20 years (and is entombed on a hill near the city).
Following the fall of the Roman Empire in A.D. 476 (about 800 years after it came under control), Naples was an often disputed area. Through the middle ages it was held by the Byzantines, Franks, Normans, Germans, and others. Naples was often united with the island of Sicily as part of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies which was formed by the Normans in the 1000's to 1100's. From 1266 on the Kingdom of Two Sicilies was ruled by France In 1442 Spain was able to hold the city and continued to control it for the next 250 years.
In the early 1700s, Austria gained control over Naples. In 1734 Naples became the capital of the independent kingdom of Naples which was governed by the Bourbon family (of Spain) along with Sicily. This lasted until the Napoleonic Wars (1799 - 1814) during which Naples was ruled by the French. Following the wars, Naples was returned to Bourbon rule. The kingdom of the Two Sicilies lasted until 1860 at which point it became part of the newly created kingdom of Italy.
Pizza, as we know it, originated in Naples in 1889 - a creation of the baker Raffaele Esposito who created a special dish in honor of the King (King Umberto I) and Queen (Queen Margherita) of Italy who visited. The pizza was a flat bread with green basil, white mozzarella cheese and red tomato sauce representing the colors of the Italian flag. Today, this pizza is known as Pizza Margherita, named after the Queen who favored the new dish.