Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1781-1867)
arrived at David's
studio around 1814. His study there was to be short lived, however, as he soon broke with David on matters of style. This difference of opinion
involved Ingre's adoption of a manner based on what he believed to be a truer and purer Greek style
than that employed by David
. The younger man adopted flat
froms approximating those found in Greek vase paintings. In a good deal of Ingres's work, the figure is placed in the foreground, much like a piece of low relief sculpture
. The value Ingres placed on the flow of the contour
is a characteristic of his style throughout his career. Countour, which is simply shaded line
, was everything
for Ingres, and drawing
was the means of creating contour. Ingres has been credited with the famous slogan that became the battle cry of the French Academy
: "Drawing is the probity of art."
In content, Ingres first adopted David's Neoclassical subjects
, but he later also traversed the complete range of Romantic sources
. Influenced by Raphael
his popular subjects are angelic in appearance
and his style commincates status
in society. His use of frigid colors
is similar to Bronzino
It was this rather strange mixture of artistic allegiances -- the precise adherence to Classical form conveyed in Romantic content -- that provoked one critic to ridicule Ingres's work as the vision of "a Chinaman wandering throughout the ruins of Athens." In both form and content, Ingres initially was seen as a kind of rebel they did not cease their attacks until the mid-1820's, when another enemy of the official style, Eugéne Delacroix, appeared. Then they suddenly percieved that Ingres's art, despite its innovations and deviations, still contained many elements that adhered to the official Neoclassism. Ingres soon became a leader in the academic forces in the battle against the "barabrism" of Géricult, Delacroix, and their "movement." Gradually, Ingres warmed to the role in which he had been cast by the critics, and he came to see himself as the conservator of good and true art, a protector of it's principles against would be "destroyers."
Lometa. "Artists and Art in the Classroom" Tucson, Arizona.
1994. (Lecture presented at St Joseph's Catholic School.)
Justus, Kevin. "Art and Culture II." Tucson , Arizona.
1992. (Lecture presented at Pima Community College.)
De La Croix, Horst, Richard D. Tansey, and Diane Kirkpatrick.
Art Through the Ages. University of Michigan: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.