J.R.R. Tolkien> The Silmarillion

Gil-galad was an Elven-king.
Of him the harpers sadly sing:
the last whose realm was fair and free
between the Mountains and the Sea.

-The Fall of Gil-galad
Translated by Bilbo Baggins

Ereinion Gil-galad was the only son of Fingon and the sixth and last High King of the Noldor. He was born in the year 445 of the First Age. During the Dagor Bragollach, Fingon sent his son to Cîrdan the Shipwright at the Grey Havens. When Fingon was lost in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad, his brother Turgon became High King of the Noldor because Gil-galad was still young. He became High King when Turgon was lost in the fall of Gondolin and remained near the Mouths of Sirion for the remainder of the First Age.

In the Second Age, Gil-galad founded the realm of Lindon after the destruction of Beleriand during the War of Wrath. There he fought and defeated the evils of Sauron with aid from Númenor. Sauron later rose again after the fall of Númenor and attacked Gondor. This caused Gil-galad to form the Last Alliance of Elves and Men with Elendil. He led the combined forces of that alliance into battle in the year 3434 of the Second Age and defeated Sauron and besieging Barad-dûr. In the year 3441 of the same age, Elendil and Gil-galad overthrew Sauron and themselves were slain.

Gil-galad was born as Ereinion, which means 'Descendant of Kings', and was later named Ereinion Gil-galad (Gil-galad means 'Star of Radiance). During his reign as the High King, he was simply called Gil-galad. He bore the ring Vilya, the greatest of the Elven Rings of Power and the spear Aeglos.

                          |          |         |
                       Fingon      Turgon     Aredhel

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