> The Silmarillion
Turgon was the second son of Fingolfin and the High King of the Noldor after the death of his brother Fingon. He was born in Valinor during the Years of the Trees, so he has no definite birth date. While there, he was friendly with the sons of Finarfin and was strongly against Fëanor's plan to pursue Melkor into Middle-Earth. But at last he was drawn along with the Exiles and he lost his wife Elenwë in the crossing of the Helcaraxë.
In the year 51 of the First Age, Ulmo instructed Turgon to build a hidden kingdom in the valley of Tumladen. 52 years later, he led his people to the newly built city of Gondolin, which he built in the image of Tirion. There he and his people remained secluded from the affairs of the outside world for over 500 years. However, the Doom of Mandos had an infinite reach.
After the Dagor Bragollach, the great eagle Thorondor brought the body of his father to Turgon. Almost two years after this, Thorondor again brought the gift of outsiders to Gondolin in the form of Húrin and Huor. They remained there for a year and Turgon, foreseeing his doom, allowed them to return to Dor-lómin. He then sent mariners to Valinor to obtain the mercy of the Valar, but none of the ships made it and only one mariner survived: Voronwë.
Turgon then joined Maedhros and his brother Fingon in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad, and because of the sacrifice of the House of Hador, was able to retreat to Gondolin unseen. Tuor came to Gondolin in the year 496 of the First Age bearing the message of Ulmo, who counseled Turgon to abandon his great kingdom and flee to the Havens of Sirion. Turgon, however, had allowed his pride to grow in the safety of his grand city, and chose to remain at Gondolin. Now Melkor was bent on finding the Hidden Kingdom, which was the last realm in Middle-Earth controlled by the House of Finwë. Melkor eventually found his way into Gondolin and Turgon was slain defending his tower.
Turgon was a cautious ruler and thus, with the friendship of Ulmo, was able to extened the life of his kingdom, but eventually succomed to the pride of his kindred. This small time, however, allowed the union of Tuor and Idril, who produced Eärendil the Mariner. It was Eärendil who later sailed to Valinor and gained the mercy of the Valar, who finally defeated Melkor utterly. He bore the sword Glamdring, which was later borne by Gandalf.
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Fingon Turgon=Elenwë Aredhel
Eärendil the Mariner