A body is a special ring (short: a ring is an algebraic structure with two binary operations, one, the addition, forms a commutative group, the other , the multiplication, forms a monoid and both operations are distributive. for more information, follow the hard-link to Noether's wu).
The special thing about this ring is, that for the multiplication exists an inverse: (R,+,*) is a body
For x ∈ R AND x ≠ 0
exist an element x^-1 ∈ R with x * x^-1 = x^-1 * x = e
e is the one element, which means x * e = x

(Q,+,*) is such a special ring, whereas the example out of the ring node, (Z,*,+), is just a normal (but commutative) ring.

The <body> tag is the HTML tag which encompasses the visual parts of the document. It surrounds the text, images, tables, and other pretty things that make up your everyday web page. It is placed between the <html>...</html> tags of the document. In the HTML 4.01 standard, the W3C states that the body tag is optional. There is an ending tag for the body tag, </body>, which is optional as well. The body tag can not be used in nodes on everything2. It has a number of different attributes which can be included in the tag. These include:

background="URL" (Optional, Depreciated)
If included, this attribute specifies that the document has a background image. By default, the image is tiled in all directions across the page, but this can be overcome with Cascading Style Sheets, and the bgproperties attribute below. The actual image can be in a variety of different image formats, the most common including GIF, JPEG, and PNG, depending on browser support. The attribute accepts URLs in the form of either complete, partial or relative URLs for the image. If the image specified by URL is not found, the background image is ignored, and the bgcolor attribute, or the browsers' default background colour, is used for the background instead.

text="colour" (Optional, Depreciated)
This optional attribute specifies the colour of normal text on the entire web page. On most browsers and systems, this is usually black by default, however it can be changed by the user/user agent - so to make sure your web page looks the same on all systems, you need to specify a colour. The colour can be in either hexadecimal form (#rrggbb), or it can be one of the number of named colours available - see the Named HTML Colors superdoc for these.

link="colour", alink="colour", vlink="colour" (Optional, Depreciated)
These optional attributes specify various colours for links in the document. Links are created using the &kt;a> tag. The "link" attribute specifies the colour of normal, unvisited links in the document; the "vlink" attribute specifies the colour of visited (i.e. the user has visited the link's document already) links in the document; and the "alink" attribute specifies the colour of active links in the document, which occurs when the user clicks on the link (and waiting for the page to load). On most browsers and systems, the link colour is usually blue, the visited link purple and the active link red. It can be changed by the user/user agent however, so to make sure your web page looks the same on all systems, you need to specify a colour. The colour can be in either hexadecimal form (#rrggbb), or it can be one of the number of named colours available - see the Named HTML Colors superdoc for these.

bgcolor="colour" (Optional, Depreciated)
This optional attribute specifies the background colour of the body of the document. This attribute is ignored if you also have the background attribute above - the image supercedes the colour. On Internet Explorer, this is usually white; on Netscape, this is usually a light grey (silver). This colour can be changed by the user/user agent however - so to make sure your web page looks the same on all systems, you need to specify a colour. The colour can be in either hexadecimal form (#rrggbb), or it can be one of the number of named colours available - see the Named HTML Colors superdoc for these.

scroll="yes/no" (Optional)
This optional attribute tries to inform the users' browser whether or not to include scrollbars when rendering the web page. When the size of the web page is larger than the browsers' available rendering space, scrollbars are usually included to allow the user to scroll down to view the rest of the web page - this attribute can disable this function in newer browsers.

Internet Explorer also brought about its own proprietary attributes to HTML. These aren't in the W3C specification for HTML. The following attributes were introduced in Internet Explorer 4.0, and will work in any version since then:

leftmargin="pixels", rightmargin="pixels", topmargin="pixels", bottommargin="pixels" (Optional, Depreciated)
These attributes specify absolute positioning of the body of the web page in reference to the browser window. Each of these attributes specifies the left, right, top and bottom margins respectively, and is measured in pixels. These can be set to 0, which means that the web page is aligned to the edges of the window. Not all of these attributes have to be included at the same time.

bgproperties="FIXED" (Optional)
This attribute indicates to the browser that the background image of the page should be "fixed". When the user scrolls down a web page, the background image usually follows the scrolling; however, this attribute will keep the image fixed, and the image will not move when the user scrolls. It only has one value - FIXED. This only has an effect when the background attribute is included as well with the body tag.

Most of these attributes have become depreciated, as the new way of HTML relies solely on Cascading Style Sheets for web pages, to specify elements' colours, sizes and positions. However, these depreciated attributes can still be included (under Transitional and Loose document type definitions (DTDs)), so older browsers can still render web pages appropriately.

A few attributes have been implemented recently, and are therefore only available in recent browsers. These new attributes include:

title="text" (Optional)
This attribute is for informational purposes. If present, this indicates the element title of the body.

style="value", class="value" (Optional)
Both of these values are related to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), which is beyond the scope of this node.

id="value" (Optional)
The id attribute sets a specific identification key to the document, so attributes of the body can later be accessed through DHTML and other scripting methods.

The following example of the body tag specifies that the page has a background image "images/someimage.gif", which is fixed to the background. If the image is not available, the background will become white. The text on the page is coloured yellow by default.

<body bgcolor="white" text="#ffff00" background="images/someimage.gif" bgproperties="FIXED">

It is important to note that this is not a fully comprehensive list of all the attributes and information available for the <body> tag, it is merely a guide. Specifically, it does not cover the event attributes (onLoad, onUnload, etc), or any of the Dynamic HTML (DHTML) scripting properties. For a more complete guide to the body tag, please visit the World Wide Web Consortium (http://www.w3c.org), which sets the standards for HTML.

Bod"y (&?;), n.; pl. Bodies (&?;). [OE. bodi, AS. bodig; akin to OHG. botah. √257. Cf. Bodice.]


The material organized substance of an animal, whether living or dead, as distinguished from the spirit, or vital principle; the physical person.

Absent in body, but present in spirit.
1 Cor. v. 3

For of the soul the body form doth take.
For soul is form, and doth the body make.


The trunk, or main part, of a person or animal, as distinguished from the limbs and head; the main, central, or principal part, as of a tree, army, country, etc.

Who set the body and the limbs
Of this great sport together?

The van of the king's army was led by the general; . . . in the body was the king and the prince.

Rivers that run up into the body of Italy.


The real, as opposed to the symbolical; the substance, as opposed to the shadow.

Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.
Col. ii. 17.


A person; a human being; -- frequently in composition; as, anybody, nobody.

A dry, shrewd kind of a body.
W. Irving.


A number of individuals spoken of collectively, usually as united by some common tie, or as organized for some purpose; a collective whole or totality; a corporation; as, a legislative body; a clerical body.

A numerous body led unresistingly to the slaughter.


A number of things or particulars embodied in a system; a general collection; as, a great body of facts; a body of laws or of divinity.


Any mass or portion of matter; any substance distinct from others; as, a metallic body; a moving body; an aëriform body. "A body of cold air." Huxley.

By collision of two bodies, grind
The air attrite to fire.


Amount; quantity; extent.


That part of a garment covering the body, as distinguished from the parts covering the limbs.


The bed or box of a vehicle, on or in which the load is placed; as, a wagon body; a cart body.

11. (Print.)

The shank of a type, or the depth of the shank (by which the size is indicated); as, a nonpareil face on an agate body.

12. (Geom.)

A figure that has length, breadth, and thickness; any solid figure.


Consistency; thickness; substance; strength; as, this color has body; wine of a good body.

⇒ Colors bear a body when they are capable of being ground so fine, and of being mixed so entirely with oil, as to seem only a very thick oil of the same color.

After body (Naut.), the part of a ship abaft the dead flat. --
Body cavity (Anat.), the space between the walls of the body and the inclosed viscera; the cælum; -- in mammals, divided by the diaphragm into thoracic and abdominal cavities. --
Body of a church, the nave. --
Body cloth; pl. Body cloths, a cloth or blanket for covering horses. --
Body clothes. (pl.)

1. Clothing for the body; esp. underclothing. 2. Body cloths for horses. [Obs.] Addison. --
Body coat, a gentleman's dress coat. --
Body color (Paint.), a pigment that has consistency, thickness, or body, in distinction from a tint or wash. --
Body of a law (Law), the main and operative part. --
Body louse (Zoöl.), a species of louse (Pediculus vestimenti), which sometimes infests the human body and clothes. See Grayback. --
Body plan (Shipbuilding), an end elevation, showing the conbour of the sides of a ship at certain points of her length. --
Body politic, the collective body of a nation or state as politically organized, or as exercising political functions; also, a corporation. Wharton.

As to the persons who compose the body politic or associate themselves, they take collectively the name of "people", or "nation".

Body servant, a valet. --
The bodies seven (Alchemy), the metals corresponding to the planets. [Obs.]

Sol gold is, and Luna silver we threpe (=call), Mars yren (=iron), Mercurie quicksilver we clepe, Saturnus lead, and Jupiter is tin, and Venus coper.

Body snatcher, one who secretly removes without right or authority a dead body from a grave, vault, etc.; a resurrectionist. --
Body snatching (Law), the unauthorized removal of a dead body from the grave; usually for the purpose of dissection.


© Webster 1913

Bod"y (&?;), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bodied (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Bodying.]

To furnish with, or as with, a body; to produce in definite shape; to embody.

To body forth, to give from or shape to mentally.

Imagination bodies forth
The forms of things unknown.


© Webster 1913

Bod"y, n. (Aëronautics)

The central, longitudinal framework of a flying machine, to which are attached the planes or aërocurves, passenger accommodations, controlling and propelling apparatus, fuel tanks, etc.


© Webster 1913

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