Leaders of the United States


From http://www.geocities.com/Athens/1058/rulu.html :
 4 Jul 1776                independence declared (United States of America)
                           (Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts,
                           New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina,
                           Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia)
 2 Mar 1781                Articles of Confederation effective
 3 Sep 1783                independence recognized by Britain
 4 Mar 1789                Constitution effective; 11 of the 13 original states have
                           ratified it by that time
21 Nov 1789                North Carolina ratifies Constitution
29 May 1790                Rhode Island ratifies Constitution

Presidents of the ("Continental") Congress
 5 Sep 1774 - 22 Oct 1774  Peyton Randolph (1st time)         (b. 1721 - d. 1775)
22 Oct 1774 - 26 Oct 1774  Henry Middleton                    (b. 1717 - d. 1784)
10 May 1775 - 24 May 1775  Peyton Randolph (2nd time)         (s.a.)
24 May 1775 - 29 Oct 1777  John Hancock                       (b. 1737 - d. 1793)
29 Oct 1777 -  1 Nov 1777  Charles Thomson (acting)           (b. 1729 - d. 1824)
 1 Nov 1777 -  9 Dec 1778  Henry Laurens                      (b. 1724 - d. 1792)
10 Dec 1778 - 28 Sep 1779  John Jay                           (b. 1745 - d. 1829)
28 Sep 1779 -  2 Mar 1781  Samuel Huntington                  (b. 1731 - d. 1796)
Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
 2 Mar 1781 - 10 Jul 1781  Samuel Huntington                  (s.a.)
10 Jul 1781 -  4 Nov 1781  Thomas McKean                      (b. 1734 - d. 1817)
 5 Nov 1781 -  3 Nov 1782  John Hanson                        (b. 1721 - d. 1783)
 4 Nov 1782 -  2 Nov 1783  Elias Boudinot                     (b. 1740 - d. 1821)
 3 Nov 1783 - 31 Oct 1784  Thomas Mifflin                     (b. 1744 - d. 1800)
 3 Nov 1783 - 13 Dec 1783  Daniel Carroll                   (b. 1730 - d. 1796)
                           (acting for Mifflin)
30 Nov 1784 -  6 Nov 1785  Richard Henry Lee                  (b. 1732 - d. 1794)
23 Nov 1785 -  5 Jun 1786  John Hancock                       (s.a.)
23 Nov 1785 - 12 May 1786  David Ramsay                     (b. 1749 - d. 1815)
                           (acting for Hancock)
15 May 1786 -  5 Nov 1786  Nathaniel Gorham                  (b. 1738 - d. 1796)
                           (acting for Hancock to 5 Jun 1786)
 2 Feb 1787 -  4 Nov 1787  Arthur St. Clair                   (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
22 Jan 1788 -  2 Nov 1788  Cyrus Griffin                      (b. 1748 - d. 1810)
Presidents┬╣
30 Apr 1789 -  4 Mar 1797  George Washington                  (b. 1732 - d. 1799)
 4 Mar 1797 -  4 Mar 1801  John Adams                    Fed  (b. 1735 - d. 1826)
 4 Mar 1801 -  4 Mar 1809  Thomas Jefferson              D-R  (b. 1743 - d. 1826)
 4 Mar 1809 -  4 Mar 1817  James Madison                 D-R  (b. 1751 - d. 1836)
 4 Mar 1817 -  4 Mar 1825  James Monroe                  D-R  (b. 1758 - d. 1831)
 4 Mar 1825 -  4 Mar 1829  John Quincy Adams             D-R  (b. 1767 - d. 1848)
 4 Mar 1829 -  4 Mar 1837  Andrew Jackson                Dem  (b. 1767 - d. 1845)
 4 Mar 1837 -  4 Mar 1841  Martin Van Buren              Dem  (b. 1782 - d. 1862)
 4 Mar 1841 -  4 Apr 1841  William Henry Harrison        Whg  (b. 1773 - d. 1841)
 4 Apr 1841 -  4 Mar 1845  John Tyler                    Whg  (b. 1790 - d. 1862)
 4 Mar 1845 -  4 Mar 1849  James K. Polk                 Dem  (b. 1795 - d. 1849)
 4 Mar 1849 -  9 Jul 1850  Zachary Taylor                Whg  (b. 1784 - d. 1850)
 9 Jul 1850 -  4 Mar 1853  Millard Fillmore              Whg  (b. 1800 - d. 1874)
 4 Mar 1853 -  4 Mar 1857  Franklin Pierce               Dem  (b. 1804 - d. 1869)
 4 Mar 1857 -  4 Mar 1861  James Buchanan                Dem  (b. 1791 - d. 1868)
 4 Mar 1861 - 15 Apr 1865  Abraham Lincoln               Rep  (b. 1809 - d. 1865)
15 Apr 1865 -  4 Mar 1869  Andrew Johnson                Dem  (b. 1808 - d. 1875)
 4 Mar 1869 -  4 Mar 1877  Ulysses S. Grant              Rep  (b. 1822 - d. 1885)
 4 Mar 1877 -  4 Mar 1881  Rutherford B. Hayes           Rep  (b. 1822 - d. 1893)
 4 Mar 1881 - 19 Sep 1881  James A. Garfield             Rep  (b. 1831 - d. 1881)
19 Sep 1881 -  4 Mar 1885  Chester A. Arthur             Rep  (b. 1830 - d. 1886)
 4 Mar 1885 -  4 Mar 1889  Grover Cleveland (1st time)   Dem  (b. 1837 - d. 1908)
 4 Mar 1889 -  4 Mar 1893  Benjamin Harrison             Rep  (b. 1833 - d. 1901)
 4 Mar 1893 -  4 Mar 1897  Grover Cleveland (2nd time)   Dem  (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1897 - 14 Sep 1901  William McKinley              Rep  (b. 1843 - d. 1901)
14 Sep 1901 -  4 Mar 1909  Theodore Roosevelt            Rep  (b. 1858 - d. 1919)
 4 Mar 1909 -  4 Mar 1913  William Howard Taft           Rep  (b. 1857 - d. 1930)
 4 Mar 1913 -  4 Mar 1921  Woodrow Wilson                Dem  (b. 1856 - d. 1924)
 4 Mar 1921 -  2 Aug 1923  Warren G. Harding             Rep  (b. 1865 - d. 1923)
 2 Aug 1923 -  4 Mar 1929  Calvin Coolidge               Rep  (b. 1872 - d. 1933)
 4 Mar 1929 -  4 Mar 1933  Herbert Hoover                Rep  (b. 1874 - d. 1964)
 4 Mar 1933 - 12 Apr 1945  Franklin D. Roosevelt         Dem  (b. 1882 - d. 1945)
12 Apr 1945 - 20 Jan 1953  Harry S. Truman               Dem  (b. 1884 - d. 1972)
20 Jan 1953 - 20 Jan 1961  Dwight D. Eisenhower          Rep  (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
20 Jan 1961 - 22 Nov 1963  John F. Kennedy               Dem  (b. 1917 - d. 1963)
22 Nov 1963 - 20 Jan 1969  Lyndon B. Johnson             Dem  (b. 1908 - d. 1973)
20 Jan 1969 -  9 Aug 1974  Richard M. Nixon              Rep  (b. 1913 - d. 1994)
 9 Aug 1974 - 20 Jan 1977  Gerald R. Ford                Rep  (b. 1913 - d. 2006)
20 Jan 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Jimmy Carter                  Dem  (b. 1924)
20 Jan 1981 - 20 Jan 1989  Ronald Reagan                 Rep  (b. 1911 - d. 2004)
20 Jan 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  George Bush                   Rep  (b. 1924)
20 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001  Bill Clinton                  Dem  (b. 1946)
20 Jan 2001 - 20 Jan 2009  George W. Bush                Rep  (b. 1946)
20 Jan 2009 -              Barack Obama                  Dem  (b. 1961)
Party abbreviations: Dem=Democratic, D-R=Democratic-Republican, Fed=Federalist, Rep=Republican, Whg=Whig

On six occasions, a president took the oath of office one or (in Tyler's case) two days after the beginning of his term of office, either because the demise of the presidency was due to the death of the incumbent or because of religious scruples about swearing an oath on Sunday. These occasions are: Monroe 1821 (upon reelection), Tyler 1841, Taylor 1849, Fillmore 1850, Arthur 1881, Coolidge 1923. Although the oath is necessary for a president to "enter on the execution of the office," the presidential term itself begins on time. On two occasions the new president took the oath of office in public the day after the beginning of the term but, in view of the concerns voiced about earlier Sunday deferrals, had taken the oath in private (Hayes 1877 actually one day early). The beginnings of the terms are listed here, not the oath-taking dates. It may be noted in this context that there is no substance to the legend that David Rice Atchison was president 4-5 Mar 1849. (If not being sworn in as president is held against Zachary Taylor's being president already from noon on 4 Mar 1849, it cannot be argued that another person, however qualified otherwise, could have been acting president without being sworn in in that capacity.)

Confederate States of America

Note: The states making up the Confederate States of America previously seceded from the United States; the secession of Missouri and Kentucky affected only geographic parts of these states.

 8 Feb 1861                Confederate States of America founded by Alabama, Florida,
                           Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina
 5 Mar 1861                accession of Texas
20 May 1861                accession of Arkansas and North Carolina
23 May 1861                accession of Virginia
22 Jul 1861                accession of Tennessee
28 Nov 1861                accession of Missouri
10 Dec 1861                accession of Kentucky

President of the Congress
 8 Feb 1861 - 18 Feb 1861  Howell Cobb                        (b. 1815 - d. 1868)
President
18 Feb 1861 - 10 May 1865  Jefferson Davis               Dem  (b. 1808 - d. 1889)