Born in 1799: Died in 1799:

Tens of thousands of soldiers from wars all over Europe and in India; tens of thousands of Italian peasants from French reprisals. Hundreds of Italian Jews caught in the crossfire. Also:

Events of 1799:
  • United States President John Adams relaxes the Embargo against trade with France to allow trade with two ports in Haiti.
  • Alexander von Humboldt leaves Spain for his expedition in South America.
  • George Shaw of the British Museum describes a new creature from Australia, the platypus, but suggests it may be a hoax.
  • At the Battle of Seringapatam, British forces reduce the Kingdom of Mysore, the last barrier to their domination of Southern India.
  • Rajit Singh defeats the Afghans and declares himself Maharaja of Punjab.
  • The Directory stirs things up while Napoleon Bonaparte continues to pursue glory in Egypt.    Turkey, England, Austria, and Russia form a second coalition against France.  They begin a three-pronged attack:  with the Turks attacking the French in the Middle East, the Austrians and Russians in Italy and Switzerland, and the British in Holland.
    • (January 23) General Championnet captures Naples; southern Italy is set up as a Parthenopean Republic January 26. The French army is almost immediately withdrawn.  Cardinal Fabricius Ruffo Scilla raises bands of peasants and the Parthenopean Republic quickly falls apart.
    • (February 2) The Austrians capture Mulhouse in Alsace.
    • (February 10) Bonaparte leads an army from Egypt with the object of conquering Syria.
    • (March 24) The French enter Florence and occupy Tuscany.  A peasant revolt centered around the veneration of Arezzo's Madonna del Conforto breaks out. Spurred by supporters of the Grand Duke and rallying around the anti-religious character of French Republicanism, bands of armed peasants crying "Viva Maria!" begin marching through the Tuscan countryside, expelling the French. They also commit atrocities, especially to Jews to whom the French had granted civil liberties.
    • (March 19) Bonaparte begins to besiege Acre.
    • (April 5) Russian Marshal Suvarov defeats the French at Magnano and begins his march across Northern Italy.
    • (May 2) Colonel Arthur Wellesley captures Seringpatam in India.
    • (May 15) Marshal Suvarov takes Turin. The Cisalpine Republic is no more.
    • (May 20) The British are able to supply the Turks in Acre by sea, and Napoleon has to lift the siege.
    • (May 28) The Viva Maria army retakes Siena.
    • (June 4-7) The Austrians defeat the French at Zurich.
    • (June 22) The Directory adopts official prototypes of the meter and kilogram.
    • (June 23) Cardinal Scilla recaptures Naples and the King of the Two Sicilies returns home.  the Directory has lost all of Italy.
    • (July) Ottoman Troops land in Egypt at Abu Qir Bay.
    • (July 5) The Viva Maria retakes Florence.
    • (July 15) In Rosetta, Egypt, French Captain Pierre Bouchard discovers a stone with some writing on it.
    • (July 25) Bonaparte defeats the Turkish army, re-taking Abu Qir.
    • (August 23) Bonaparte abandons his army in Egypt, slipping away in a small ship back to France,.
    • (August 27) British troops land in Holland at Den Helder.
    • (September 13) Russian troops arrive in Holland.  Fighting in Holland is bloody and towns change hands several times.
    • (September 19) The Russians take Brabant.
    • (September 26) General Masséna, having collected the remnants of the defeated French armies into a force of 75,000, defeats the Russians under Rimsky-Korsakov and recaptures Zurich.
    • (October 2) The British take Alkmaar
    • (October) Suvarov leads his army in Italy across the Alps into Switzerland to join the other Russian army, which has already been destroyed. This army is trapped by Franch forces and the soldiers slowly die from cold and starvation.
    • (October 18) The British and Russians begin evacuating Holland.
    • (October 22) Its armies destroyed, Russia withdraws from the Coalition.
    • (November 9) Napoleon Bonaparte makes a bad speech to the Five Hundred (similar to the US House of Representatives). Some members physically attack him but some of his soldiers rescue him. That night, members of the Five Hundred allied with Bonaparte meet and draw up a new constitution abolishing the Directory and making Bonaparte First Consul. This is the first time such an action was referred to as a coup d'etat.
    • (December 24) The new constitution is published and the French people begin voting on it.

1798 - 1799 - 1800

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