Dante Alligheri's concept of hell, developed in Italy circa 1300. Although he was excommunicated by the Catholic church as a heretic, Dante's ideas still evolved into a standard part of modern Christian mythology. Specifically, Dante merged the Christian concept of retributive justice (9 circles of Hell, each divided according to crime) with the traditional Greek legends of Hades (such as Cerebus, Minos, and the river Styx). See Divine Comedy for more.