Judaism, in its initial form, didn't have much of an afterlife per se. In early Judaism, the afterlife was rarely mentioned or alluded to; they thought that death was considered to be quite simply a fact, and that what comes after it shouldn't be worried over too much. Instead, they believed that one should focus all one's thoughts on this life. This is the reason that having children (lots and lots of children) is so very important in Judaism--in a very real way, one's children were thought to be one's afterlife.

When the Babylonian Captivity occurred around BC 600, the Jews were exposed to Zoroastrianism, and various tenets from that religion wound up influencing Judaism. Among other things, the idea of an afterlife began to develop. Their afterlife was sometimes depicted as fairly bland; it was sometimes considered to be simply a place for shades and ghosts. There was no punishment and no reward. Think of the scene in the Odyssey where Odysseyus meets the dead Tiresias. This was called sheol. There was also sometimes a place called Ghenna depicted, which seems very much like the Greek and Roman Hades. There is no suggestion that there are separate places for reward and punishment, in the way that heaven is supposedly a placein the sky and hell is a place in the ground, but rather punishment and reward may take place in the same region.

It is very important to note that the Jews did not believe that the non-Jewish would go to hell. Some Jews believed in a sort of manifold path idea to salvation, and Judaism was just the best way to go. In traditional Judaism, however, the thing of it was that Jews quite simply didn't care what happened to the gentiles. The Jews were the favorite of their God, who was the one, true God, and everyone else would wind up doing their own thing. There is quite a bit of interesting lore and thought deaing with this last idea of the seperation between Jews and gentiles, however this isn't the place to go into it.