18th dynasty of Ancient Egypt, 1353-1336 BCE, married to Nefertiti, helped to establish a monotheistic religion during his reign to replace Amon, (polytheism). His god, Aton (Amon-Re, Re or Ra) was symbolized by the sun. His original name Amenhotep was changed to Akhenaton meaning 'One Useful to Aton'.

He built a new temple at Karnak, moving the religious center of Egypt from Thebes.

This usurped the religious power from the polytheistic priethood that had been in control of Egypt. Once Akhenaton died, his weaker successors were unable to continue the new movement and the priesthood resetablished their power over the people.

His successors were first Smenkhkare, a breif rule, and then by a second son-in-law, Tutankhaton, who changed his name to Tutankhamen and brought back Amon, and returned the power to Thebes.