In electrostatics, the polarization P is the dipole moment per unit volume.

Objects which have non-zero dipole moment are known as dielectrics. If a time varying electric field is applied the polarization also changes resulting in a polarization current density Jb


The degree to which an object acquires polarization depends on the applied electric field E and the electric susceptibility χe.


The total electric flux density D in a dielectric is


The polarization is analagous to the magnetization in magnetics