Verse form characterized by particular onomatopoetic character; it is intended to be read and received aloud rather than on the printed page. The beginnings of sound poetry can be traced to Italian Futurists such as Marinetti, who believed in the concept of parole in liberta, roughly: the freed word. The movement was later embraced by Dadaists such as Kurt Schwitters, as well as members of the post-WWII avant-garde such as Ernst Jandl of Vienna.

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