Oxide of iron.
Necessitating such things as the continuous painting of the Golden Gate Bridge since it was built.

Rusting is actually a slow form of burning.

A type of club fungus that is a parasite on plants. The most common rust is Puccinia graminis (black stem rust in wheat).

From the BioTech Dictionary at http://biotech.icmb.utexas.edu/. For further information see the BioTech homenode.

Rust1 is a relatively new systems programming language (it first appeared in 2010). It is primarily focused on performance and safety; in fact it can be *faster* than C/C++*. While it is syntactically similar to C/C++, the compiler provides many guarantees that prevent a large class of bugs that are very easy to introduce in traditional systems programming languages. However, what this means is that for programmers who come from languages like C/C++, it takes some time to change their mental model; a lot of time in the beginning is spent dealing with the errors the compiler will complain about.

To go into a bit more detail, one of Rust's most unique features is its notion of Ownership. First of all, by default, all variables are immutable. This means that if you try to assign another value to that variable, the compiler will complain. In order to make a variable mutable, you have to explicitly add the mut keyword. Secondly, by default (except for the primitive types), assigning a variable the value of another variable follows move semantics. This means that the once the variable on the left side of the = operator has been assigned the value of the variable on the right side, the latter becomes invalid; attempting to use it will cause the compiler to complain. Thirdly, when it comes to references (which are essentially non NULL pointers), you are allowed to have many immutable references to the same memory location, but only one mutable reference. Finally, when a variable goes out of scope, its value gets dropped (the variable gets destructed).

What does this mean? It means that Ownership follows a set of rules2:

  • Each value in Rust has a variable that’s called its owner.
  • There can only be one owner at a time.
  • When the owner goes out of scope, the value will be dropped.
When you get a reference to a value, it is considered a "borrow". The Rust compiler has a Borrow Checker; learning to write code that makes the Borrow Checker happy is the biggest hurdle to overcome when learning Rust. For example, if you have a variable that you want to pass to a function, and you pass it by value, when you return from that function, that variable is now invalid; trying to use it will result in the compiler complaining. In languages such as C/C++, this behaviour is perfectly allowed - if the value you passed in was a struct and the function was supposed to populate the fields of the struct, then this would be one of those bugs that are impossible in Rust.

As I'm still currently in the process of learning Rust, I'm not going to try and delve in to all of its features. However, because the language pulls features from a wide variety of languages3 (e.g. such as Enums as algebraic data types, no null value, etc.), it is an incredibly expressive language. As someone who's spent a majority of their programming life (short though it may be) using C/C++, learning rust has been surprisingly therapeutic. It is an incredibly beautiful language, one where the developer is forced to think about their code carefully.

As more time goes by, I'm starting to recognize that the way I was taught programming in computer engineering does not yield good programmers; it yields technical debt. However, I also acknowledge that becoming a good programmer, like anything in life, takes time and effort, and it's unreasonable to gatekeep people who just want to build projects for their own pleasure. That is why I believe Rust is a good common ground to address these two opposing realities. Rust might have a slightly steeper learning curve in the beginning, but it ingrains behaviours that carry over to other languages. I definitely recommend giving it a go; if nothing else, (in my opinion) it's at least a very interesting read.

1. https://www.rust-lang.org/
2. https://doc.rust-lang.org/book/ch04-01-what-is-ownership.html#ownership-rules
3. https://doc.rust-lang.org/reference/influences.html
* Suggested edit by RoboQuote.

Rust (?), n. [AS. rust; akin to D. roest, G. & Sw. rost, Icel. ry[eth]; -- named from its color, and akin to E. red. 113. See Red.]

1. Chem.

The reddish yellow coating formed on iron when exposed to moist air, consisting of ferric oxide or hydroxide; hence, by extension, any metallic film of corrosion.

2. Bot.

A minute mold or fungus forming reddish or rusty spots on the leaves and stems of cereal and other grasses (Trichobasis Rubigo-vera), now usually believed to be a form or condition of the corn mildew (Puccinia graminis). As rust, it has solitary reddish spores; as corn mildew, the spores are double and blackish.

Rust is also applied to many other minute fungi which infest vegetation, such as the species of Ustilago, Uredo, and Lecythea.


That which resembles rust in appearance or effects.

Specifically: (a)

A composition used in making a rust joint

. See Rust joint, below. (b)

Foul matter arising from degeneration; as, rust on salted meat.


Corrosive or injurious accretion or influence.

Sacred truths cleared from all rust and dross of human mixtures.
Eikon Basilike.

Rust is used in the formation of compounds of obvious meaning; as, rust-colored, rust-consumed, rust-eaten, and the like.

Rust joint, a joint made between surfaces of iron by filling the space between them with a wet mixture of cast-iron borings, sal ammoniac, and sulphur, which by oxidation becomes hard, and impervious to steam, water, etc. -- Rust mite Zool., a minute mite (Phytopius oleivorus) which, by puncturing the rind, causes the rust-colored patches on oranges.

© Webster 1913.

Rust, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Rusting.] [AS. rustian.]


To contract rust; to be become oxidized.

If gold ruste, what shall iron do?

Our armors now may rust.


To be affected with the parasitic fungus called rust; also, to acquire a rusty appearance. as plants.


Fig.: To degenerate in idleness; to become dull or impaired by inaction.

Must I rust in Egypt? never more
Appear in arms, and be the chief of Greece?

© Webster 1913.

Rust, v. t.


To cause to contract rust; to corrode with rust; to affect with rust of any kind.

Keep up your bright swords, for the dew will rust them.


Fig.: To impair by time and inactivity.


© Webster 1913.

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