Not to be confused with "Paperclip," The C64 Word Processor. See this node for details.

What: If webster 1913 was around in 1981, he might have said this:

paper clip (n) 
  - a device consisting of a length of wire bent into flat loops that can be
    separated by a slight pressure to clasp several sheets of paper together 

  - a spring clamp designed as a clasp for papers 

(Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged, 1981)

Styles: Paperclips have been around for a long time, and they've been constantly modified and new ideas come out every day. As such, it is impossible to list all the different types of paperclips, so I'll stick to the mainstream ones.
  • Gem - The Gem paper clip was developed by a company called Gem Manufacturing Ltd. of England. This is the common paperclip seen today, the standard "double oval" style. The Gem paperclip was never officially patented, though William Middlebrook, from Waterbury, Connecticut, patented a machine for making Gem paper clips in 1899.
  • Owl - The Owl paper clip is named as such for its eye-shaped circles. They don't get tangled with other clips, nor do they snatch at stray papers that didn't belong with the clipped stack.
  • Butterfly - The Butterfly paper clip is comprised of two triangle-shaped legs with a square top. They have a very high tension and are suitable for holding large bundles of paper together, and guaranteeing that they stay together.
  • Spring - There is a whole alternate line of spring-loaded paper clips, sometimes referred to (incorrectly) as alligator clamps. They could fill a whole node on their own.
  • Non-Skid - A variation of the Gem paper clip, the non-skid clip features many grooves to add texture and stop papers from slipping out from beneath them.
History: Paper fastening has always been a requirement in the world, and the early history of the paper clip is much the same as the early history of the stapler.

The first known fastening of papers was in the 13th century, when a short length of ribbon was placed through parallel incisions in the upper left hand corner of pages. This was followed by a seal-method, the act of connecting papers with wax and ribbons. This wax-seal method was used for nearly 600 years before any substantial improvement were made.

In 1835 a New York physician named John Ireland Howe designed and built the first truly practical machine for mass-producing solid head straight pins. In a relatively short time, straight pins were being sold by the half pound for the explicit purpose of temporarily fastening papers together.

This is where the history of the stapler and the paper clip divide.

On March 15, 1866 Johan Vaaler was born in Aurskog, Norway. The young man was known throughout the town as an inventor, and he graduated with a degree in science, electronics, and mathematics. While employed at a local invention office, he invented the paper clip in 1899. Because Norway had no patent laws at the time, it had to be approved in Germany to secure patent rights. Vaaler presented a number of designs.

Unfortunately, due to financial considerations, Vaaler had to give up on his paper clips, and lost contact with the German patent office. No patents were registered.

In 1900, Cornelius J. Brosnan of Springfield, Massachusetts was awarded the patent for the paper clip. He named it the Konaclip, but the name never stuck. Shortly afterward, Gem Manufacturing Ltd. produced their popular "Gem" paper clip.

Vaaler is generally given credit for the invention of the paper clip, though legally and on paper, it is Brosnan that gets all credit.

Somehow, though, dissent in the paper clip world doesn't quite strike fear in my heart.

Fun Paper clip Quotes: "Paper clips are gregarious by nature, and solitary ones tend to look very, very depressed." - dwardu

/msg me if you have any fun paper clip quotes
10-12 different sources used, mainly and personal homepages.
The X-files

Paper Clip (Part 3 of 3)
Episode: 3X02
First aired:09/29/95
Written by: Chris Carter
Directed by: Rob Bowman

The conclusion to the three parter, Anasazi and The Blessing Way!

From the previous episode: Scully, believing that Mulder is dead confronts Skinner. Her sister, Melissa is shot dead by Krycek. At the end, Scully and Skinner are locked in a stalemate in Mulder's apartment when they hear footsteps outside the room.

Mulder enters his apartment to find Scully and Skinner pointing guns at eachother and draws his own gun at Skinner, who puts his down. Skinner says that he has the missing files but Mulder tells him that CSM killed his father. Skinner, trying to remain on Mulder's side says the tapes are the only way to bring these men to justice.

Mrs. Scully goes to the hospital believing that Scully has been shot to find her other daughter in a coma.

Mulder and Scully show an old photograph of Mulder's father and an other man to the Lone Gunman who identify the other man as Victor Klemper, a Nazi scientist who escaped after WWII in exchange for research knowledge under a secret deal known as Operation Paper Clip. Frohike enters and tells Scully that her sister is in the hospital.

The Well-Manicured Man tell CSM that he has made a horrible mistake by shooting the wrong person. He demands CSM find the missing tape.

Mulder and Scully visit Klemper who tells them to go to a mining company in West Virgina. He then calls WMM to tell them about their visit so they now know that Mulder is infact alive.

Mulder has Albert go to Melissa and Mrs. Scully since he knows the hospital will be watched.

At the mining site, ulder and Scully find countless cabinets of medical files including one for Scully and one for ulder's sister, Samantha. Mulder notices that Samantha's name was has been plastered over his own.

When the lights suddenly go out, Mulder and Scully run to find an exit. They notice wierd alien figures rush past them and the are separated. Mulder finds his way outside and witnesses a massive spacecraft hovering over the facility. Scully observes an alien silhouette but it is gone in a flash of light.

Armed men arrive and fire at Mulder causing him to run back into the mine. He finds Scully and they rush outside through a secret door.

They meet with Skinner who tells them he'll trade the tape for their saftey and reinstatement to the bureau.

Scully believes they have lost control over the situation since the truth is no good if they are dead.

Skinner sees Mrs. Scully at the hospital and sees a mysterious man in the stairwell. After chasing the man, he is ambushed by Krycek and is beaten by two other men who take the tape. Later, Krycek narrowly escapes being blown up along with his car.

Mulder and Scully go to see Klemper again but encounter the WMM who tells them he's dead. He explains that the scientists were brought to the U.S. to conduct experiments to create an alien/human hybrid. Genetic data was gathered by millians of people through smallpox vaccinations and that Mulder's father, having threatened to expose the project was kept quite with Saantha's abduction.

Mulder goes to see his mother and asks her if she had to choose between him and Samantha. She breaks down and says it was his father's choice.

CSM and Skinner meet. Skinner tells him that Albert has memorized what is on the tapes and has told at least 20 people.

Melissa dies and Scully mourns for her sister. ulder says they have both lost so uch but he believes that the truth is still out there.

Important Quotes:
Scully -- "I have to go there, Mulder."
Mulder -- "You can't go."
Scully -- "That bullet was meant for me."
Mulder -- "If they're trying to kill you, that's the first place they're going to look."
Scully -- "Those bastards..."

Scully -- "Mulder... No, wait, hang on a second. Whatever we find in here... I don't think you've had time to process everything that you've been through."
Mulder -- "I'm okay, Scully..."
Scully -- "You weren't even able to go to your father's funeral and if something in here were to cast doubt on the kind of man he was... I, I just know how it would affect me."

Skinner -- "This is where you pucker up and kiss my ass...Now, you listen to me, you son of a bitch! This man's name is Albert Hosteen. You should remember that. Because if Agents Mulder and Scully come down with so much as a case of the flu, Albert is prepared to recite, chapter and verse, file for file, everything on your precious tape."

Scully -- "It happened three hours ago. She went into surgery and, uh... the damage to her brain was worse than they had hoped. Her blood pressure started to rise and, uh... she slipped away. She died for me and I tried to tell her I was sorry but I don't think she'll ever really know.

Mulder -- "We've both lost so much... but I believe that what we're looking for is in the X-Files. I'm more certain than ever that the truth is in there."
Scully -- "Ive heard the truth, Mulder. Now what I want are the answers."

Back to The X-files: Season 3

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