The London Boroughs are government-defined administrational areas of the capital, created when London got too big to be centrally administrated.
In 1889, the London County Council was created, consisting of the City of London and 28 Metropolitan Boroughs taking areas from Middlesex, Surrey and Kent.
In 1965, the administrative unit of Greater London was created, though the name itself had previously been used in an informal sense. This comprised the old County of London, with the old Metropolitan Boroughs merged into a smaller number of boroughs, plus the remaining parts of Middlesex and parts of Essex, Herts, Surrey and Kent. Middlesex ceased to exist as an administrative county, though the name is still used in postal addresses.

Present-day boroughs of Greater London:

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