1. Shaikh Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifa (1872-1942)

Bahraini ruler. 9th Hakim of Bahrain (from 1933). Son of Isa ibn Ali al-Khalifa (1848-1933). Nine children: Shaikh Salman (1895-1961, 10th Hakim of Bahrain), Shaikh Mubarak, Shaikh Abdullah, Shaikh Ali (1898), Shaikh Ibrahim, Shaikh Rashid (1902), Shaikh Khalifa, Shaikh Diaji, Shaikh Ahmad.

2. Shaikh Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifa (1950-)

Bahraini ruler. 12th Emir (continuing the former titles of Hakim and Shaikh) of Bahrain (from 1999). From February 14, 2002, using the title of King of Bahrain. Son of Isa ibn Salman al-Khalifa (1933-1999). Born in Riffa, Bahrain, January 28, 1933. Four children with Shaikha Sabika bint Ibrahim al-Khalifa (whom he married in 1968): Shaikh Salman (1969), Shaikh Abdullah (1975), Shaikh Khalifa (1977), Shaikha Najla (1981).

Following in the footsteps of his father, Shaikh Hamad governs Bahrain with his uncle, Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa, and his son, Crown Prince Salman (commander of the Bahraini defence forces), in consultation with a council of ministers.

Since succeeding to the throne in 1999, King Hamad has taken steps to make Bahrain more open and democratic. Among these processes was the popular referendum of February 14, 2001, which supported a move towards constitutional monarchy and a change of status from emirate to kingdom (which was implemented the following year). In the wake of this, efforts have been made to increase civil rights protections, and hold municipal elections. Progress is slow, however.

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