Ecuador, also known as the Republic of Ecuador gained it’s independence from Spain on May 24th, 1822 and became a Democratic nation.

    Ethnic Division:
  • Mestizo (mixed Indigenous and Spanish): 45%
  • Indigenous: 35%
  • Spanish: 10%
  • Black: 10%

Indigenous groups: over 40 indigenous nations including the Quichua, Huaorani, Shuar (Jivaro), Achuar, Cofan, Siona, Secoya, Otavaleño, Tchatchilas (Colorados), Zaparo, Salasacas, Canaris, Saraguro & Chachi

Languages: Spanish (official), numerous indigenous tongues. Quichua, the language of the Incas, is the most widely spoken indigenous language. English is commonly spoken among professionals and tourism providers.

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic, however most mestizos and indigenous converts combine Catholicism with animistic practices and beliefs.


Climate: tropical along the coast and in the Amazon region, and cooler in the highlands

Terrain: coastal plain (Costa), inter-Andean highlands (Sierra), and eastern rainforest plain (Oriente) & the Galapagos Island Archipelago

Natural resources: oil, fish, timber, and various minerals

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