"Die Bahn" -- Deutsche Bahn AG
On January 1st, 1994, the state-run railway systems of Western Germany and the former GDR, Deutsche Bundesbahn and Deutsche Reichsbahn, were merged and privatised in what came to be known as the German Railway Reform ("Bahnreform"). They became Deutsche Bahn AG -- at first glance, a private corporation, but really a huge mess of companies, subcompanies and subsubcompanies under the aegis of a central holding company.
Deutsche Bahn's corporate structure is as complicated as anyone might expect. Several separate business units exist, some of the run as GmbHs, some as AGs. Just some of the "Bahn daughters" in alphabetical order:
All these business units are of course subdivided into many, many smaller companies.
Just to give you a slight impression:
- more than 2,700 passenger-service locomotives
- more than 1,800 DMUs
- more than 1,400 EMUs
- more than 12,600 passenger cars
- more than 1,400 electric freight-service locomotives
- more than 2,000 diesel freight-service locomotives and shunters
- more than 128,000 freight cars (plus about 65,000 owned by third parties)
- more than 36,000 kilometres of track (nearly 20,000 electrified) comprising more than 93,000 switches and crossings and over 7,500 stations and stops, about 26,000 road crossings, 844 tunnels and nearly 33,000 bridges
Deutsche Bahn is the biggest investor and one of the biggest employers in Germany and Europe's largest rail-transport company.