Boxing is the only socially acceptable way for two grown men to:

  • Wear silk or satin in public.
  • Put on some nice gloves.
  • Step into a pretty ring.
  • Fight over a belt...
  • ...and win a purse.
  • Atari 2600 Game
    Produced by: Activision
    Model Number: AG002
    Atari Rarity Guide: 2 Common
    Year of Release: 1980

    Top down perspective Boxing game from Activision for the Atari 2600. This was the second game Activision ever made. The graphics are simple, (with big chunky characters). But it is still a pretty fun game. You might get bored just playing against the computer, (I would suggest a human opponent).

    From the instruction manual:

    HOW TO BE A CHAMPION AT BOXING
    BY ACTIVISION
    Tips from Bob Whitehead, designer of Boxing

    Bob Whitehead, a senior member of Activision's design team, began designing games for the Atari system in 1977 and worked on numerous well-known game titles. He is busily at work on new games for Activision.

    "I wanted Boxing to be fun to play the first time you try it, but I designed some little tricks into the game that will make it more challenging the more you play.

    "You'll find that the way to win at Boxing it to hit and dance, hit and dance (just like the pros). Draw off your opponent's jabs by making him punch while you're dancing quickly out of his reach. And watch out! When he gets behind, he gets better. But hang in there is you get behind; after the first minute (of each two-minute bout), the computer gets a little tired, and his reactions slow down. Come on strong at the end of the round and you might still catch him. By the way, I shortened the rounds to 2 minutes because... well, you'll see why when you've gone a couple rounds.

    "Your best strategy for winning is to jab your opponent until you move him to the ropes, then charge in, mix it up in close, and keep your red button pressed down. You may be able to repeat a punching combination that builds up your point score fast.

    "But--please--be fair to newcomers. Give yourself a handicap when you're showing them Boxing. We don't want you to lose your friends.

    Bob Whitehead

    Bob Whitehead is the programmer on this title.

    This game is valued at around $2 USD. Games with boxes and manuals are worth more.

    The Sweet Science of Bruising

    Boxing is the sport to which all other sports aspire
    "Big" George Foreman

    Any Boxing fan is used to the question, "Why do you like Boxing?" They are told that is is a "brutal", "barbaric", "violent" "non-sport". The men involved in it are either criminals or criminals at heart. They are uneducated and attack each other like animals. It's un-civilized to sit there and watch two men beat each other to death. Boxing should be outlawed because it's dangerous and leaves its fighters "punch drunk". Just look at Mohammad Ali. The Boxing fan understands the confusion of the outsider to the sport. Boxing is, by far, one of the most paradoxical games in existence.

    At first, Boxing seems like a very simple "game". In fact, some people argue that this is a good thing. Boxing is human competition in its purest form. There are no "balls" or "sticks" involved. Two men step into a ring and proceed to bash each other's brains in. Or, at least, attempt to. If you'd really like to see this simply watch a Toughman Competition. Compare that to any real Boxing match you can find on TV and you should quickly see the difference. Boxing has much more in common with Chess than Toughman. Well, more in common with Speed Chess. The two principals spend months fine-tuning their bodies and training themselves to instinctively react to a myriad of situations. Then they are given minutes to unlock the mystery of how to get past their opponents defense while also managing to avoid their offense.

    People often feel that Boxers simply become "barbarians" who are animalistic killing machines with no control bent on destroying their "enemy" when they get in the ring. This couldn't be farther from the truth. Boxing is all about control and will power. It is hardly "animalistic" to fight someone in 3-minute bursts. Or to suddenly stop punching because they've fallen down. On the other hand, it's also not natural to continue fighting when you're losing and escape can easily be attained.

    The idea that a Boxer hates his opponent is also not usually true, regardless of how grueling the fight is. The perfect example of this was the recent struggle between Micky Ward and Arturo Gatti. Over 10 rounds these two men skillfully and beautifully doled out tremendous damage on each other. No doubt, they were throwing punches with "bad intentions" meant to cause pain and, hopefully, unconsciousness. But as soon as the final bell rang the two exhausted "enemies" grasped each other in a hug like two warriors who have survived another heated battle. Very often the two men involved have a relationship like those who have gone through a war as fellow soldiers, not as enemies.

    Boxing is very often considered an exceptionally dangerous sport. After all, the object of the fight is to concuss your opponent or, at least, beat him to a bloody pulp. And blood is a very common sight in Boxing. In its attempt to help ban boxing the AMA admitted that it wasn't the most dangerous sport at all. Of course, Boxing's most notorious danger is that of permanent brain damage. The image of the crumbled mind and body of Mohammad Ali haunts even the strongest supporter of Boxing. Most Boxers are able to avoid this fate by simply quitting before they've bceome too old. The greatest tragedy of Ali's story is that by avoiding his last few brutal fights this condition could have been averted. Boxing is much safer now even though some fighters insist of fighting past their prime. The super-majority of Boxers leave Boxing in better shape than in many other sports.

    Of course, Boxing does have its share of other problems. Most of these have nothing to do with the sport itself but with those who manage it. The Boxing fan is used to a constant barrage of bad decisions, early stoppages, late stoppages, bad calls, bad refs, horrible promoters, mismatched fights, great fighters who never get noticed and much publicized fighters who seem to stand for everything their beloved sport is not. The popular media doesn't help by usually highlighting these facets. Everyone knows about the upcoming Mike Tyson fight and his insane ramblings are newsworthy. Meanwhile, one of the greatest fights in years, Ward/Gatti, was ignored and the upcoming Barrera/Morales fight is getting no attention. It's not surprising the way people feel about Boxing since they only ever hear about its bad side.

    In spite of all this, at its best Boxing makes other sports pale in comparison. No other sport can pack in as much action and drama in so short a time as in Boxing. Great fights seem like epic wars even though they're less than an hour long. No other sport has its participants straining their physical and mental abilities to the limits that Boxing does. No other sport presents its players with moments as difficult as in Boxing. Coming from behind in Basketball by putting out a little more effort than the other team is sometimes exciting. Watching a fighter who has been knocked down three times and is bleeding all over come back to win the fight is, as HBO's Larry Merchant recently put it, "humbling". While on average Boxing matches may sometimes be "slow" or mismatched, every once and awhile one comes along that is breathtaking in its mixture of brutality and beauty. This is why the Boxing fan puts up with the bad side of the Boxing: To be able to witness some of the most moving and exciting events that Sports have to offer.


    Joyce Carol Oates. On Boxing. Hopewell, NJ: Echo Press, 1994.
    Showtime, HBO and ESPN's Boxing broadcasts
    Max Kellerman

    Within programming languages which have both reference and value types, boxing is the act of converting a value type to a reference type. In other words, boxing is the act of taking a reference to a variable. C# and .NET talk about boxing by this name, and C# allows boxing to occur implicitly.

    While Java has both primitive (i.e. value) and reference types, it takes a slightly different approach, in that wrapper classes are provided to allow the primitive types to be used as objects are.

    The opposite of boxing is of course unboxing, which converts a reference type to a scalar type, or equivalently performs a dereferencing operation.

    A definition

    Boxing can be defined as an athletic contest between two persons, each of whom uses the fists to try to knock the other unconscious or to inflict enough punishment to cause the opponent either to quit or to be judged beaten.

    A boxing match is conducted under established rules and procedures and has a referee, judges, and timekeeper. The primary aim of each participant is to strike blows to the front of the head and torso of the opponent that will knock down and render the boxer incapable of rising to a standing position and defending himself within ten seconds. Many fights are decided on points scored.

    The History

    A point system was first established in England by the Amateur Boxing Association. Today several systems are used throughout the world. For many years professional boxing in Britain preferred the 5-point system, but in 1973 adopted the 10-point system which had been used in the United States and elsewhere for some time. The better fighter is given the maximum 10 points in each round, if judged equal then both boxers must be given the maximum. A fighter who loses a round is normally awarded 8 or 9 points. Points are generally awarded for clean hits with the knuckle part of the glove delivered with the clenched fist to any part of the front or sides of the head, or body above the belt. Points are also awarded for good defensive work in guarding, slipping, or ducking. Where contestants are equal in these respects, maximum marks go to the one who is the most aggressive or displays the better technique.

    Professional boxing in Britain is scored by the referee. In most other countries, the referee and two judges score the fight and the decision is given on a majority vote. Originally the term prizefighting was used when money was at stake, but the term professional boxing now bears the same meaning. Amateur boxing refers to bouts in which prize money is not at stake. The term pugilism (from Latin pugil, meaning "a boxer") is sometimes used for the sport. In ancient Greece, boxing was a popular sport and was included in the Olympic Games.

    In ancient Rome, boxers often wore the cestus, a metal-studded leather hand covering with which they maimed and even killed their opponents, sometimes as part of gladiatorial spectacles. The sport declined in popularity after the fall of the Roman Empire.

    The first record of a boxing match in modern times is in England in 1681 when the Duke of Albemarle organized a fight between his butler and his butcher. In the 18th century, boxing was revived in London in the form of bare-knuckle prizefights in which the contestants fought for money and the spectators made wagers on the outcome. The first boxer to be recognized as a heavyweight champion was the Englishman James Figg, in 1719. In 1743 a later champion, John Broughton, formulated a set of rules standardizing some practices and eliminating others, such as hitting opponents when they are down or seizing opponents by the hair. Broughton's rules governed boxing until 1838, when the Original London Prize Ring rules, based on those of Broughton, were devised. Modifications known as the Revised London Prize Ring rules were drawn up in 1853, and they controlled the sport until the end of the 19th century, when the Queensberry rules came into use.

    These rules were drafted in 1857 under the auspices of John Sholto Douglas, 8th Marquis of Queensberry. His aim was to emphasize boxing skill rather than wrestling, and agility over strength. The Queensberry rules helped to undo the popular image of boxing as a savage brawl by prohibiting barefist fighting, wrestling, hugging, hitting opponents while they were helpless and fighting to the finish.

    Marquis of Queensberry Boxing Rules Governing Contests for Endurance (1865)

    1. To be a fair stand-up boxing match in a 24-foot ring, or as near that size as practicable.
    2. No wrestling or hugging allowed.
    3. The rounds to be of three minutes' duration, and one minute's time between rounds.
    4. If either man falls through weakness or otherwise, he must get up unassisted, 10 seconds to be allowed him to do so, the other man meanwhile to return to his corner, and when the fallen man is on his legs the round is to be resumed and continued until the three minutes have expired. If one man fails to come to the scratch in the 10 seconds allowed, it shall be in the power of the referee to give his award in favour of the other man.
    5. A man hanging on the ropes in a helpless state, with his toes off the ground, shall be considered down.
    6. No seconds or any other person to be allowed in the ring during the rounds.
    7. Should the contest be stopped by any unavoidable interference, the referee to name the time and place as soon as possible for finishing the contest; so that the match must be won and lost, unless the backers of both men agree to draw the stakes.
    8. The gloves to be fair-sized boxing gloves of the best quality and new.
    9. Should a glove burst, or come off, it must be replaced to the refere's satisfaction.
    10. A man on one knee is considered down and if struck is entitled to the stakes.
    11. No shoes or boots with springs allowed.
    12. The contest in all other respects to be governed by revised rules of the London Prize Ring.

    Basic Boxing Technique - Attack

    Very simply there are four types of punches that can be thrown in a boxing match. These are the jab, cross, hook and upper cut.

    The jab is thrown straight forward with the leading hand and is used to probe the defense of the opponent, to keep them at a distance and to wear them down. It is not a knockout punch because there is little weight and therefore little power behind it, it is used primarily in the set-up for harder punches. (The long reach of Lennox Lewis's jab won him his contest against Mike Tyson, a shorter man with a much shorter reach. Tyson couldn't get close enough to use his big hooks and uppercuts and was worn down by the continual harrassment)

    The cross, hook and uppercut are most definitely knockout punches if they connect. The cross is similiar to the jab in that it is a straight punch, but is thrown by the trailing hand and so greater force can be put behind it.

    The hook is possibly the most powerful punch a boxer has in his arsenal and can be thrown by either hand. The force of a hook is so devastating because of the amount of body mass a boxer can put behind it and also the speed of the punch. A hook is delivered to the side of the opponent’s head and is thus named because of the bending of the elbow. Incidentally the elbow should be at shoulder height throughout the punch.

    The uppercut is possibly the least thrown punch because boxers tend not to get close enough to each other to throw one, but if it does land on an opponents chin it's more then likely that they're going to be kissing canvass, again due to the amount of force that can be put behind it.

    A boxer takes these four punches and throws them in 'combinations' to try and achieve his ultimate goal of breaking through his opponents defenses.

    Defense

    For each attack there is of course a corresponding defense that involves either blocking, deflecting or simply getting out of the way.

    To defend against the jab a boxer can pivot at the hips moving his head from side to side to avoid the punch, he can lean, step back or duck, again to avoid the punch. He can bring his gloves in front of his head to block the punch or he can intercept the punch and parry it off target with his gloves. The same defensive techniques also apply to the cross, as it is straight punch the same as the jab.

    To defend against a hook a boxer can bring his gloves and arms up to the sides of his head forming a protective shield, or he can avoid the punch by stepping or leaning back or by ducking the punch.

    To defend against an uppercut all a boxer has to do is bring his gloves and forearms to the front of his body to form an impenetrable guard, or he can simply step or lean back.

    Simple isn't it, and it's that simplicity which makes for the thrill of the fight, and I don't care what anyone says about it being brutal and savage and wot knot, at it's heart it's about strategy and technique and is akin to a game of chess, although admittedly you cant get hurt playing chess, unless you stick a pawn up your nose and then can't get it out.

    In closing, a southpaw fighter is one who is left-handed and so leads with his right hand, or is a right-handed boxer who prefers to lead with his right.

    And very finally.

    Weight classes:

    Strawweight - up to 105 pounds
    Light Flyweight - over 105 to 108 pounds
    Flyweight - over 108 to 112 pounds
    Super Flyweight - over 112 to 115 pounds
    Bantamweight - over 115 to 118 pounds
    Super Bantamweight - over 118 to 122 pounds
    Featherweight - over 122 to 126 pounds
    Super Featherweight - over 126 to 130 pounds
    Lightweight - over 130 to 135 pounds
    Super Lightweight - over 135 to 140 pounds
    Welterweight - over 140 to 147 pounds
    Super Welterweight - over 147 to 154 pounds
    Middleweight - over 154 to 160 pounds
    Super Middleweight - over 160 to 168 pounds
    Light Heavyweight - over 168 to 175 pounds
    Cruiserweight - over 175 to 195 pounds
    Heavyweight - all over 195 pounds

    Box"ing, n.

    1.

    The act of inclosing (anything) in a box, as for storage or transportation.

    2.

    Material used in making boxes or casings.

    3.

    Any boxlike inclosure or recess; a casing.

    4. Arch.

    The external case of thin material used to bring any member to a required form.

     

    © Webster 1913.


    Box"ing, n.

    The act of fighting with the fist; a combat with the fist; sparring�x3c;--pugilism--�x3e;.

    Blackstone.

    Boxing glove, a large padded mitten or glove used in sparring for exercise or amusement.

     

    © Webster 1913.

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