The vinaya is the general system of proper actions conducive to attaining nirvana. Literally meaning, "leading out," the vinaya is intended to be followed in order to prevent the execution of "wrong actions." For fully ordained monks, there exist 227 rules in the Pratimoksa, the codified list of rules; there are 311 rules for nuns, due to added restrictions based on gender. This comes from the original list recited at the First Council by Upali, who was entrusted with memorizing the vinaya.