Córdoba is a city in central Argentina, 713km (442 miles) northwest of Buenos Aires and 721km (447 miles) northeast of Mendoza. It was founded on the banks of the Suquía river (also known as the Primero river) on July 6, 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, and was originally called Córdoba de la Nueva Andalucía, after the city in southern Spain, home of Luis de Cabrera's wife. It is Argentina's second-largest city after the capital of Buenos Aires, with a population of 1,350,000.
Córdoba was the first capital of Argentina. It was created as a resupply stop for Spaniards traversing the Argentine desert to Peru and Chile.
In 1613, the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba was founded by Jesuit priests, the second university in Spanish America. The Jesuits also established six estancias in Córdoba province.
Architecturally, Córdoba is a center of colonial Spanish buildings. It has a host of churches and old mansions, and walking through the city center one will find a church on nearly every block. Some of the most famous attractions include the residence of the Marqués de Sobre Monte, the Cabildo, or town hall, and "La Cañada", a primitive water management system designed to control Córdoba's chronic flooding. In addition to the Iglesia Catedral, Córdoba is also home to the Iglesia de la Compañía, the headquarters of the Jesuit Missions in what was originally Paraguay. The Manzana Jesuítica, or Jesuit Block, is a center of study and worship that has produced some of Argentina's top professionals.
Córdoba is also a major industrial and agricultural center. In addition to automobiles, Córdoba was the location of the Fábrica Militar de Aviones (Military Aircraft Factory).