(Polish: "The Great Emigration")
The term commonly used to describe the massive politically motivated emigration from Poland, following the brutal crushing of the November Rising of 1830-1831.
At least 9000 people fled the country, many belonging to the élite of Polish culture and science. Numerous officers and nearly all of the high nobility also left. The greater part of the émigrés settled in France, fostering a remarkably creative and fertile community, which engendered a Polish cultural renaissance in exile.