Welcome to the definitions section of the Federal Aviation Regulations. This is one of the longer sections, thus will be broken into four parts. This is G-P.
Acronyms and Rules of construction.
My explications are in small print after the definitions to which they apply.
G-P of Subchapter A, Part 1, of the FARs
Glider means a heavier-than-air aircraft, that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its lifting surfaces and whose free flight does not depend principally on an engine.They say "principally" because gliders with retractable engines, such as the eta are often used. See soaring.
Ground visibility means prevailing horizontal visibility near the earth's surface as reported by the United States National Weather Service or an accredited observer.
Go-around power or thrust setting means the maximum allowable in-flight power or thrust setting identified in the performance data.
Gyrodyne means a rotorcraft whose rotors are normally engine-driven for takeoff, hovering, and landing, and for forward flight through part of its speed range, and whose means of propulsion, consisting usually of conventional propellers, is independent of the rotor system.This is an odd helicopter with short stubby wings and a propeller.
Gyroplane means a rotorcraft whose rotors are not engine-driven, except for initial starting, but are made to rotate by action of the air when the rotorcraft is moving; and whose means of propulsion, consisting usually of conventional propellers, is independent of the rotor system.
Helicopter means a rotorcraft that, for its horizontal motion, depends principally on its engine-driven rotors.
Heliport means an area of land, water, or structure used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of helicopters.
Idle thrust means the jet thrust obtained with the engine power control level set at the stop for the least thrust position at which it can be placed.
IFR conditions means weather conditions below the minimum for flight under visual flight rules.
IFR over-the-top, with respect to the operation of aircraft, means the operation of an aircraft over-the-top on an IFR flight plan when cleared by air traffic control to maintain "VFR conditions" or "VFR conditions on top". This is the act of flying visually (with one's eyes) above the altitude ceiling specified on an instrument flight clearance.
Indicated airspeed means the speed of an aircraft as shown on its pitot static airspeed indicator calibrated to reflect standard atmosphere adiabatic compressible flow at sea level uncorrected for airspeed system errors. It's what the dial says.
Instrument means a device using an internal mechanism to show visually or aurally the attitude, altitude, or operation of an aircraft or aircraft part. It includes electronic devices for automatically controlling an aircraft in flight.
Interstate air commerce means the carriage by aircraft of persons or property for compensation or hire, or the carriage of mail by aircraft, or the operation or navigation of aircraft in the conduct or furtherance of a business or vocation, in commerce between a place in any State of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and a place in any other State of the United States, or the District of Columbia; or between places in the same State of the United States through the airspace over any place outside thereof; or between places in the same territory or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia. The carriage of stuff across a state line.
Interstate air transportation means the carriage by aircraft of persons or property as a common carrier for compensation or hire, or the carriage of mail by aircraft in commerce:
(1) Between a place in a State or the District of Columbia and another place in another State or the District of Columbia;
(2) Between places in the same State through the airspace over any place outside that State; or
(3) Between places in the same possession of the United States; Whether that commerce moves wholly by aircraft of partly by aircraft and partly by other forms of transportation.
The carriage of people across a state line, if any part of the journey involved aircraft.
Intrastate air transportation means the carriage of persons or property as a common carrier for compensation or hire, by turbojet-powered aircraft capable of carrying thirty or more persons, wholly within the same State of the United States. Think of a 737 going from Oakland to LA.
Kite means a framework, covered with paper, cloth, metal, or other material, intended to be flown at the end of a rope or cable, and having as its only support the force of the wind moving past its surfaces.
Landing gear extended speed means the maximum speed at which an aircraft can be safely flown with the landing gear extended.
Landing gear operating speed means the maximum speed at which the landing gear can be safely extended or retracted.
Large aircraft means aircraft of more than 12,500 pounds, maximum certificated takeoff weight. It should be noted that to fly "large aircraft", one needs a type rating in that aircraft.
Lighter-than-air aircraft means aircraft that can rise and remain suspended by using contained gas weighing less than the air that is displaced by the gas.
Load factor means the ratio of a specified load to the total weight of the aircraft. The specified load is expressed in terms of any of the following: aerodynamic forces, inertia forces, or ground or water reactions.
Long-range communication system (LRCS). A system that uses satellite relay, data link, high frequency, or another approved communication system which extends beyond line of sight.
Long-range navigation system (LRNS). An electronic navigation unit that is approved for use under instrument flight rules as a primary means of navigation, and has at least one source of navigational input, such as inertial navigation system, global positioning system, Omega/very low frequency, or Loran C.
Mach number means the ratio of true airspeed to the speed of sound. This is expresed as a decimal for sub-sonic flight. A Boeing 747 can go .86 the speed of sound.
Main rotor means the rotor that supplies the principal lift to a rotorcraft.
Maintenance means inspection, overhaul, repair, preservation, and the replacement of parts, but excludes preventive maintenance.
Major alteration means an alteration not listed in the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller specifications --
(1) That might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, powerplant operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness; or
(2) That is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations.
If it can cause the plane to crash, it's major.
Major repair means a repair:
(1) That, if improperly done, might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, powerplant operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness; or
(2) That is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations.
Manifold pressure means absolute pressure as measured at the appropriate point in the induction system and usually expressed in inches of mercury.
Medical certificate means acceptable evidence of physical fitness on a form prescribed by the Administrator.
Military operations area. A military operations area (MOA) is airspace established outside Class A airspace to separate or segregate certain nonhazardous military activities from IFR Traffic and to identify for VFR traffic where these activities are conducted.MOAs are OK to enter, as long as you have clearance. Class A airspace is found only above 18000 feet, and extends to space.
Minor alteration means an alteration other than a major alteration.
Minor repair means a repair other than a major repair.
Navigable airspace means airspace at and above the minimum flight altitudes prescribed by or under this chapter, including airspace needed for safe takeoff and landing.
Night means the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in the American Air Almanac, converted to local time.
Nonprecision approach procedure means a standard instrument approach procedure in which no electronic glide slope is provided.This means you have to land looking at the dials in the aircraft, and hope for the best.
Operate, with respect to aircraft, means use, cause to use or authorize to use aircraft, for the purpose (except as provided in § 91.13 of this chapter) of air navigation including the piloting of aircraft, with or without the right of legal control (as owner, lessee, or otherwise). By "Operate", they mean fly.
Operational control, with respect to a flight, means the exercise of authority over initiating, conducting or terminating a flight. This applies to the owner, mechanic and pilot.
Overseas air commerce means the carriage by aircraft of persons or property for compensation or hire, or the carriage of mail by aircraft, or the operation or navigation of aircraft in the conduct or furtherance of a business or vocation, in commerce between a place in any State of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and any place in a territory or possession of the United States; or between a place in a territory or possession of the United States, and a place in any other territory or possession of the United States.
Overseas air transportation means the carriage by aircraft of persons or property as a common carrier for compensation or hire, or the carriage of mail by aircraft, in commerce:
(1) Between a place in a State or the District of Columbia and a place in a possession of the United States; or
(2) Between a place in a possession of the United States and a place in another possession of the United States; whether that commerce moves wholly by aircraft or partly by aircraft and partly by other forms of transportation.
Over-the-top means above the layer of clouds or other obscuring phenomena forming the ceiling.
Parachute means a device used or intended to be used to retard the fall of a body or object through the air.
Person means an individual, firm, partnership, corporation, company, association, joint-stock association, or governmental entity. It includes a trustee, receiver, assignee, or similar representative of any of them.
Pilotage means navigation by visual reference to landmarks.
Pilot in command means the person who:
(1) Has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight;
(2) Has been designated as pilot in command before or during the flight; and
(3) Holds the appropriate category, class, and type rating, if appropriate, for the conduct of the flight.
Pitch setting means the propeller blade setting as determined by the blade angle measured in a manner, and at a radius, specified by the instruction manual for the propeller. The angle of a propeller blade can often be changed; Pitch is the angle of attak of that blade.
Positive control means control of all air traffic, within designated airspace, by air traffic control.
Powered-lift means a heavier-than-air aircraft capable of vertical takeoff, vertical landing, and low speed flight that depends principally on engine-driven lift devices or engine thrust for lift during these flight regimes and on nonrotating airfoil(s) for lift during horizontal flight. The Osprey and Harrier fall into this category.
Precision approach procedure (PAR) means a standard instrument approach procedure in which an electronic glide slope is provided, such as ILS and PAR.
Preventive maintenance means simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations.
Prohibited area. A prohibited area is airspace designated under part 73 within which no person may operate an aircraft without the permission of the using agency. Area 51, Space Shuttle launch pad, and the white house are examples.
Propeller means a device for propelling an aircraft that has blades on an engine-driven shaft and that, when rotated, produces by its action on the air, a thrust approximately perpendicular to its plane of rotation. It includes control components normally supplied by its manufacturer, but does not include main and auxiliary rotors or rotating airfoils of engines.
A-F. Q-Z and acronyms
Federal Aviation Regulations