Al dente (dente meaning tooth or teeth) means "to the tooth". The bite characteristic of perfectly cooked pasta. This is the traditionally accepted doneness of pasta when prepared for Italian dishes although some people prefer it a bit softer, although some would characterize it indeed as "just right" (as I do myself) that is not what the words al dente mean.

In my experience, dry pasta takes about 11 minutes to cook to al dente when dropped in already boiling water. For fresh pasta, it would probably take a shorter time.

Professor Pi says to make fresh pasta al dente, you would probably have to dry it a little bit after forming the pasta. Otherwise it remains soft. Alternatively, using more eggs makes a firmer pasta.