Also used to describe the lattice of water molecules that surround an ion or nonpolar species in solution. Since water hydrogen bonds to form networks, cages can appear around atoms that do not make bonds with the water. These structures are dynamic, however, since the bonding between H|||O changes rapidly at room temperature (millions to billions of times a second). Relative to bulk solution, the clathrate is stabilised by the guest it encloses but it still much less stable than, say, ice. Not to be confused with clathrin, which also forms cage complexes.