A royal family
, whose name is sometimes spelled Stewart
. Their ancestry can be traced to the Norman
Fitzflaald, who accompanied William the Conqueror
to England. They were rulers of scotland
from 1371 to 1603, and of Great Britain
from 1603 to 1649 and from 1660 to 1714.
Robert II became the first Stuart to rule Scotland after the death of David II, Bruce's son. Robert had been seventh in a hereditary line of stewards. The crown
of Scotland remained with the family after his rule.
James IV married Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII
of England, in 1503, and their son James V ruled until his death in 1542. Mary
ascended the throne and later put forth a claim to the English throne. Mary's claim was recognised when her son, James VI of Scotland, succeeded Elizabeth I as ruler of England. As the rightful heir
to both English and Scottish thrones, James VI proclaimed himself James I, the first king of both England and Scotland, in 1603.
The reign of the son of James I -- Charles I -- culminated in a civil war
in England. This was the result of his refusal to rule with a Parliament
, as well as his religious
and foreign policies
. Many English leaders united and beheaded Charles I in 1649. England became a republic
and in 1660 a new Parliament was installed under Charles II, son of Charles I.
The Stuart line continued to rule England and Scotland until Anne Stuart, who became Queen in 1702. It was during her rule that England and Scotland officially became one nation
, the Kingdom of Great Britain