in the Ancient Greek
world following a long cultural and economic recession
Around 1200 BCE, a lot of the elite class was killed in Greece in a series of internal conflicts. The organization of the society began to dissolve as the tradespeople regressed to an agrarian existence. This was the beginning of the Dark Ages of Greece which lasted from approximately 1150 BCE to 700 BCE.
The specific causes of the Colonization Movement are uncertain, but it was probably due to an overall growth in population coupled with a shift from agrarian self-sufficiency to the large-scale production of grain. The people of Greece had begun to form systems of commerce again, and combined with their larger population, they began to seek ports of trade abroad.
Large estates began to flourish once again as the Greeks pulled themselves from the Dark Ages. A middle class of craftsmen, sailors, and shipbuilders began to thrive at the new influx of wealth. Ports grew around the Mediterranean, the most successful being at El Mina on the Ionian coast (now Turkey). Herodotus thought that El Mina was founded by a hero returning from the Trojan War.
A writing system was needed in Greece after this growth in commerce. One was created borrowing many Pheonician letters. Writing first began to flourish around 740 BCE; the first texts were associated with the start of the Olympic Games in 776 BCE.
The outer colonies were small at first, fed by the still young mother cities in Greece. Some temples and public buildings were erected as the cities became more wealthy.
Greek influence reached farther than it ever had before during this time. The future empire found its roots in the growth attained during the Colonization Movement.