Land is the natural resource which forms one of the factors of production. This includes both physical land and any resources contained upon it or in it, such as oil and minerals. The distribution of land between countries is obviously fixed as it cannot be moved geographically, but the purpose for which it is used can be dynamic, i.e agricultural land can be converted for housing or industrial use.

Companies which extract minerals and resources from the land are said to be in the primary sector of industry.