It is unclear, and debatable when or how exactly civilization started. Some scholars believe it started with the invention of writing, other believe it began with the development of advanced agriculture techniques.

Writing is a major part of civilization, because it allows commerce to thrive with a system of banking and currency. Although the earliest humans found are well over a million years old, the earliest records of a writing system are only around 7000 years old. Many scholars believe the Sumerains in Mesopotamia(Mesopotamia means land between the waters) were first to devise a system of writing called cuneiform.

Another task for a successful civilization would be to produce enough food so that everyone would not have to be a farmer. The people in the Fertile Crescent(Mesopotamia) accomplished this task by using irrigation to ensure a healthy crop. The nearby Tigris and Euphrates rivers made this task easier.

Through the ages, civilization underwent many perils. First, the conquests of Alexander the Great from Macedonia along with other young men sporting dreams of world domination. After that came the Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome. The Christian religious Crusades and Islamic Jihad created turmoil in the world for several centuries. Trying to re-capture Jerusalem for Christianity, the crusaders often did not display Christian Morals. The Islamic Jihads pushed the Islamic religion into Africa, then up into Spain, until the Catholics defeated the Moors in 1492.

The Anglo-Saxons on England also had their share of wars with France. The most rememberable are William the Conqueror’s invasion in 1066 of France, and the adventures of Eleanor of Aquitaine. First settled by Rome around 300 CE, England was abandoned and left on it's own. The foreign people, along with the natives, developed strong cultures, some which can be seen vividly in organizations like the IRA and the Ulster Unionists.

During the exploration age, the sea-faring nations of Europe sent explorers around to world to place their claims. The Spaniards were the most successful, hands down. They settled most of south and Central America. The English Joint-Stock Corporations settled on the Eastern Seaboard of current-day USA. Their first colony, Roanoke, vanished under mysterious circumstances near the Croatoan Indian tribe. It was later replaced by Jamestown, named after King James II, and sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh. Two other nations, Portugal and France also colonized the new world. Portugal sent settlers south to South America and settled in Brazil. France did not build many settlements. Instead, they build a series of forts in the interior of North America and also in the northern regions of the continent. French fur trappers has successful business ventures trapping and trading in the New World. They developed the best relations with the natives of any European power.

In 1776, Colonial America broke away from Great Britain due to over-oppression and signed the Declaration of Independence. Several years later, they won their revolutionary war and became the first republic of the modern world. During the early 19th century, the debate in the United States over slavery heated up, and eventually led to a civil war. The rebellion was suppressed by Union Generals U.S. Grant and William T. Sherman among others. The next debate to come would rock the world even more.

See also: Modern Civilization and The 20th Century (coming soon).

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