A type of Japanese verb. Most verbs in Japanese are Godan verbs, as opposed to Ichidan verbs. Godan means "consonant-stem".

Godan verbs end in any consonant plus u. The following are some Godan verbs:

That last verb, kau, is considered to end in -wu, even though it doesn't. The derivation behind this is pretty complex and more resembles a mathematical proof than any useful grammatical discussion, so I'm leaving it out. However, you will notice that verbs like kau generally behave as if they did end in -wu for the purposes of forming bases and changing form.

Note that some verbs ending in -ru will look like Ichidan verbs, but are actually Godan. Examples include kaeru, shiru, or kiru. To make matters worse, there are both Ichidan and Godan versions of a few verbs. Kaeru (return) is Godan, whereas kaeru (change) is Ichidan.

To form bases from Godan verbs, you basically change the vowel of the last syllable of the verb to...

  1. a
  2. i
  3. u
  4. e
  5. oo
  6. tte / ide / ite / shite / nde
  7. tta / ita / shita / nda
But this isn't a good way to describe it, because Godan verbs vary considerably in their phonology, which must be taken into account. This produces so many "exceptions" that the above list really isn't very useful for actually working with the words. Check the individual bases (Base 1 - Base 7) for more conjugation information.