Your belief that those who earn more should pay more is actually how it works. I am constantly astounded by the number of people who claim the rich aren't paying "their fair share" of taxes.
Given that households with an annual income of $150,000 pay approximately $31,000 (or more) in taxes, I don't understand how anyone can claim they aren't paying enough. After all, this is almost the average annual income of many households.
What really should irk you is EIC. It bothers me not in the sense that it is used to reduce the tax burden on the working poor, but that it sometimes gives money back that was not paid in.

It is no longer a refund. The definition of refund is the return of money paid for a service, product or to taxes. It is not a "refund +", which is what EIC ends up as for many people.

I don't mind paying my taxes and I can even deal with the progressive taxation system. But don't claim that I don't pay my fair share or argue that others should receive more than they put in.