An iris out
is a technique
for fading to black
. It is used extensively in cartoon
s and animation
s. At the end of a cartoon short, the cartoon fades to black with a black background with a transparent circle that slowly closes to all black, similar to a pupil
The effect is made by superimposing a mask or matte of sequentially smaller circular cutouts over the animation action. The effect is combined with the animation reel using an optical printer.