Although the risk of shark attacks is fairly low, many chemicals, especially surfactants have been tested and used as repellents.
A peptide neurotoxin produced by the Moses Sea Sole Pardachirus marmoratus. In short, it works by being absorbed into the shark's skin then forms barrel like channel's in the shark's nerve cells, causing calcium ions to leak out.
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate is possibly the most effective known shark repellent. In tests on lemon sharks it performed better than Pardaxin and a wide variety of other surfactants. These chemicals are measured against one another by how little is needed to cause sharks to abandon a chunk of food that they are eating. Apparently, the food is representative of Navy, Coast Guard, or Marine personnel.
- holothurin, a sea cucumber toxin
- palytoxin, a zoanthid Palythoa mammillosa toxin
- 2-ethyl-3-methylsuccinimide, a crocodile exudite
- 2-ethyl-3-methylmaleimide, a crocodile exudite
- 3-ethylidine-4-methylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione, a crocodile exudite
Electrical shocks have been used to keep sharks away. There is always the compressed air cylinder method used in "Jaws" as well.
- Protecting SCUBA divers.
- Clearing shark infested water for an amphibious invasion
- Protecting Navy or Coast Guard rescue divers
- Protecting Ocean Kayakers
- Protecting endangered marine wildlife from predators
- Protecting Batman and Robin in the 1966 movie "Batman"