Kingdom Monera includes bacteria and blue-green algae. These are the simplest of all living organisms (assuming Viruses are not considered alive). They are single-celled organisms with little organization to their cell structure. Unlike members of the other four kingdoms, they have no membrane-bound structure protecting their genetic material (i.e. they have no nucleus).

Cells belonging to the Monera kingdom reproduce by replicating their DNA and dividing into two separate cells.

The Monera are divided into two divisions: Bacteria and Archaea.

There are three sub-classifications in the kingdom monera.

Phylum Schizophyta: Bacteria; about 2,000 species including eubacteria, rickettsias, mycoplasmas, and spirochetes; mostly heterotrophs; some photosynthetic and chemosynthetic autotrophs. Reproduction is usually asexual by binary fission or fragmentation.

Phylum Cyanophyta: Blue-green algae or cyanobacteria; about 200 species of photosynthetic autotrophs with chlorophyll a and accessory pigments;no chloroplasts; mostly filamentous; some unicellular. Reproduction is asexual by binary fission or fragmentation.

Phylum Prochlorophyta: Protosynthetic autotrophs; contain chlorophyll a and b, xanthophylls, and carotenes.

The Five Kingdoms

The kingdom monera only exists in the five-kingdom system. Monerans were put into kingdom plantae in the two-kingdom system, and into protista in the three-kingdom system. Putting monerans into a separate kingdom was very useful because monerans aren't quite protists, and aren't like plants at all.

Members of the kingdom monera have the following characteristics:

  • Prokaryotic
  • Unicellular
  • Some monerans are anaerobic, others are aerobic
  • Some are heterotrophic, others are autotrophic
  • Autotrophic monerans either utilize photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
  • They live in moist environments
  • The monera kingdom can be split into two kingdoms, eubacteria and archaebacteria, creating a six-kindom system.

    Mo*ne"ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. single.] Zool.

    The lowest division of rhizopods, including those which resemble the amebas, but are destitute of a nucleus.


    © Webster 1913.

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