This is a glossary of terms used to describe aspects of landscapes.

aoyama = green vegetated hills

bonchi = plain

denchi = land, farms, rice fields
den-en = fields and gardens; a rural district

eki = station
en = clearing or a park

fudo = landscape
fukei = landscape in the sense of scenery

hara = plains
hayashi = a forest, wood or grove
hikata = ebb-tide beach

ike = pond or lake
iso = shore, coast
iwakura (iwasaku) = "rock seat","rock boundary"; rocks which are venerated as sacred

jiban = ground; groundplane
jôka-machi = the castle towns that developed in the medieval period

kaiseki-ko = inland sea or lake
kami-ike = ponds venerated as sacred sites in the pre-Buddhist period (also pronounced as "shinchi")
kankyô = environment
kari-niwa = hunting range
kasen = river or stream
kawa = river or stream
kawara = riverbank
kaze = wind
keikan = landscape
kôen = park

machi = town
machinami = townscape
meisho = famous views or places
michi = road, way, path
minato = harbour
mine = mountain peak
mori = a forest or wood

niwa = garden
no = hillside fields
noen = agricultural field; a farm
nomine = peak of a low mountain or hill
noson fukei = pastoral, agricultural landscape; often incorporated into the design of large Edo strolling gardens
noyama = hills and streams
numa (numaike) = marsh

oiwake = forked road; parting of the ways
oka = hill
osuji = shoulder or trailing ridge of a mountain

saki = cape or headland
sakiyama = escarpment
sanmyaku = range, sierra
sansui = literally "mountains and rivers"; landscape; one of the most important concepts underlying garden art and painting
sawa = a swamp, marsh, valley or dell
shima = island(s) shinrin = a sacred forest shinzan-yûku = the mystery of wild nature; literally "deep mountains, mysterious valleys"; associated with recluses who find meaning in the study of nature
shôen = estate/manor; the large tracts held by aristocratic families and temples from the Heian era
suhama = slightly curved spit of sandy beach
suihen = freshwater shore

well in a rice-field
taki = waterfall
tanbo = a rice field
tani = valley
tanzan = foothills
tatanazuku aogaki
layer upon layer of green, hedge-like mountains
teien = garden
tera = temple
tôge = pass, gap
umi = sea
umibe = seaside or shore
ura = inlet or bay

yama = mountain

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