Bolivia is an impoverished, landlocked nation in central South America. Its population is around 10 million, including large numbers of indigenous peoples.

Originally the territory of "Upper Peru" under the Spanish Empire, Bolivia was created in 1825 by Venezuelan general Antonio José de Sucre after 16 years of warfare against Spanish colonial domination. Sucre named the new nation after his mentor and close friend, Simón Bolívar.

Originally, Bolivia had a coastline on the Pacific Ocean, but this territory was surrendered to Chile following Bolivia's defeat in the War of the Pacific (187983), dooming Bolivia to a future of poverty and dependency.

Today, Bolivia's economy revolves primarily around the extraction and export of natural resources. It has two capitals, the constitutional capital of Sucre and the administrative capital of La Paz.

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