Phylogenetic Taxonomy of Life - Botany

There will be some serious zen noding until I can work on this node as I did with Phylogenetic Taxonomy of Life, providing WUs on the more obscure taxa. There seem to be many more noded taxa for animals than for plants.

1. KINGDOM: Monera
    1.1. SUBKINGDOM Archaebacteriobionta (archaebacteria)
    1.2. SUBKINGDOM Eubacteriobionta (true bacteria)
      1.2.1. DIVISION Eubacteriophyta
        1.2.1.1. Class Eubacteriae 2,000 (unpig, purple, green sulphur bacteria)
        1.2.1.2. Class Cyanobacteriae 1,275 (blue-green bacteria)
        1.2.1.3. Class Prochlorobacteriae 3 (prochlorobacteria)
2. KINGDOM: Protista
    2.1. SUBKINGDOM: Phycobionta
      2.1.1. DIVISION Xanthophyta 275 (yellow-green algae)
      2.1.2. DIVISION Chrysophyta 400 (golden-brown algae)
      2.1.3. DIVISION Dinophyta (Pyrrhophyta) 1,000 (dinoflagellates)
      2.1.4. DIVISION Bacillariophyta 5,500 (diatoms)
      2.1.5. DIVISION Cryptophyta 74 (cryptophytes)
      2.1.6. DIVISION Haptophyta 250 (haptonema organisms)
      2.1.7. DIVISION Euglenophyta 550 (euglenoids)
      2.1.8. DIVISION Chlorophyta
        2.1.8.1. Class Chlorophyceae 10,000 (green algae)
        2.1.8.2. Class Charophyceae 200 (stoneworts)
      2.1.9. DIVISION Phaeophyta 900 (brown algae)
      2.1.10. DIVISION Rhodophyta 2,500 (red algae)
    2.2. SUBKINGDOM: Mastigobionta 960
      2.2.1. DIVISION Chytridiomycota 750 (chytrids)
      2.2.2. DIVISION Oomycota (water molds) 475
    2.3. SUBKINGDOM: Myxobionta 320
      2.3.1. DIVISION Acrasiomycota (cellular slime molds) 21
      2.3.2. DIVISION Myxomycota 500 (true slime molds)
3. KINGDOM: Fungi
    3.0.1. DIVISION Zygomycota 570 (coenocytic fungi)
      3.0.1.1 SUBDIVISION Zygomycotina
      3.0.2. DIVISION Eumycota 350 (septate fungi)
        3.0.2.1. SUBDIVISION Ascomycotina 56,000 (cup fungi)
        3.0.2.2. SUBDIVISION Basidiomycotina 25,000 (club fungi)
        3.0.2.3. SUBDIVISION Deuteromycotina 22,000 (imperfect fungi)
        3.0.2.4. SUBDIVISION Lichenes 13,500
4. KINGDOM: Plantae
    4.0.1. DIVISION Hepaticophyta 8,300 (liverworts)
    4.0.2. DIVISION Anthocerotophyta 350 (hornworts)
    4.0.3. DIVISION Bryophyta 13,500 (mosses)
    4.0.4. DIVISION Psilotophyta 3 (whisk ferns)
    4.0.5. DIVISION Lycophyta 850 (club mosses)
    4.0.6. DIVISION Sphenophyta 25 (horsetails)
    4.0.7. DIVISION Pterophyta 8,600 (ferns)
    4.0.8. DIVISION Pinophyta (gymnosperms)
      4.0.8.(1). SUBDIVISION Cycadicae 160 (cycads)
      4.0.8.(2). SUBDIVISION Pinicae
        4.0.8.(2).1. Class Ginkgoatae 1 (Ginkgo)
        4.0.8.(2).2. Class Pinatae 700 (conifers)
      4.0.8.(3). SUBDIVISION Gneticae 75
        4.0.8.3.1 Order Gnetales (Gnetum)
        4.0.8.3.2 Order Ephedrales (Ephedra)
        4.0.8.3.3 Order Welwitschiales (Welwitschia)
    4.0.9. DIVISION Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
      4.0.9.1. Class Magnoliopsida 200,000 (dicots)
      4.0.9.2. Class Liliopsida 60,000 (monocots)
        Order: Oscillatoriales Filamentous organisms enclosed by a sheath. Oscillatoria | Gleotrichia
        Order: Nostocales Colonial cells which form trichomes; some cells form heterocysts. Nostoc | Anabaena

Resource: http://botany.about.com/science/botany/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fweb1.manhattan.edu%2Ffcardill%2Fplants%2Fintro%2F

Botany is the wonderful, but often hazardous planet the Eosi have chosen to drop many of humans they have captured from earth. With no intelligent species in residence, it is possilbe for those who have been dropped to colonize the world. But first they must overcome some of the natural hazards and get to known their "land lords", the Farmers.

In the Freedom series (Freedom's Landing, Freedom's Choice, Freedom's Challenge and Freedom's Ransom), once again Anne McCaffrey has created a world that is not only beautiful, but gives her heros a challenge.

Botany, the scientific study of plants, is a branch of biology. Botany is a broad subject that covers several different scientific disciplines including plant evolution, disease, development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. A botanist may choose to spend his or her time studying plants on the microscopic and genetic levels, or he may choose to study the function of a specific plant and it’s place in the environment. Botanists today are responsible, not only for developing new medicines, but for keeping the world fed. More than two thirds of the world relies on plants as the staple of their diet. Without dedicated botanists, the global food crop would be in jeopardy. By experimenting with plants, botanists have brought us alcohol, wine, Aspirin, Coffee, Tobacco, Cotton, Paper and Rubber. Botany is one of the broadest fields of scientific study and can be enjoyed both as a profession and as a hobby.

Botany in History:
  • Historical botanical works exist from as early as 500BC. Descriptions of plants have been found carved in tablets.
  • In the fourth century BC, Theophrastus wrote volumes about the classification, morphology and reproduction of plants.
  • Ancient Egyptians studied plants to find the best times to plant them, we have found records indicating that the Egyptians cultivated olives, grapes and fig trees, but knew that the wood of a Fig tree was bad for construction.
  • In 1665 a man named Robert Hooke looked through a microscope at a piece of cork, and saw what he coined Cells. The idea of cells was new, and changed the way that we viewed ourselves as organic constructs.
  • In 1838 the German Matthias Schleiden studied the cellular nature of plants, and proposed that all plant tissue is made of cells. This implied a basic "sameness" in the structure of all living things.
  • In 1863, Gregor Mendel cultivated more then 30,000 pea plants and is the father of genetic inheritance. His work has allowed scientists to breed mice to target certain traits that are useful in scientific experiments.


Botany today:
  • Recently, Barbara McClintock discovered Transposons or Jumping Genes and was awarded the Nobel Prize for her work. It was a breakthrough, and redefined the way we thought about genetics.
  • A new study, Paleobotany, has recently become popular as the paleobotonists study fossils of plants and help track the evolution of major plant groups.
  • Plants have been in the news recently with companies genetically engineering plants to be resistant to disease. There is evidence that genetically engineered genes are showing up in native corn that was never modified.
  • New plants are discovered every day. Pharmaceutical companies actively hunt down new plants to find new medicines.
  • The Australian National University and the University of Melbourne are regarded as two of the best schools for the study of Botany.

Famous Botanists:
  • Lucy Braun: Preserved 10,000 acres of land in Ohio
  • Sacagawea: Guided Lewis and Clark
  • Gregor Mendel: Studied Pea Plants and discovered inheritance
  • Robert Hooke: Discovered Cells
  • Barbara McClintok: Discovered Transposons

To learn more: You can visit any of the sites below, and there are many quality books on the subject. You can pick up botany guide books at your local book store, or a guide to identifying plants at specialty stores in your area. Most community colleges also teach classes on botany.

Tools of a Botanist: Magnifying Glass | Notebook n' Pencil | Compass | Pruner | Trowel | Collecting Bag | Field Pack | Camera.

Sources:
- Botany.com. 2005. Tarragon Lane Ltd. 10 Mar. 2005 { http://www.botany.com}.
- ABIS: Home. 2005. American Institute of Biological Sciences. 10 Mar. 2005 {http://www.aibs.org/ core/index.html}.
- Crosby, Marshal R. "Botany." Encarta. 2005. Microsoft. 11 Mar. 2005 {http://encarta.msn.com/ encyclopedia_761573574/Botany.html}.

Bot"a*ny (?), n.; pl. Botanies (#). [F. botanique, a. & n., fr. Gr. botanic, fr. herb, plant, fr. to feed, graze.]

1.

The science which treats of the structure of plants, the functions of their parts, their places of growth, their classification, and the terms which are employed in their description and denomination. See Plant.

2.

A book which treats of the science of botany.

⇒ Botany is divided into various departments; as, Structural Botany, which investigates the structure and organic composition of plants; Physiological Botany, the study of their functions and life; and Systematic Botany, which has to do with their classification, description, nomenclature, etc.

 

© Webster 1913.

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